physical infancy

  • Created by: maizie
  • Created on: 22-03-18 12:30
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  • Physical Infancy
    • Reflexes
      • Rooting reflex
        • This causes babies to turn their cheek in the direction of touch and helps them to direct their mouth towards their mother's breast.
      • Sucking reflex
        • This causes babies to **** any object that touches their lips or enters their mouth and enables them to feed from birth.
      • Moro reflex
        • This causes babies to fling their arms outwards, arch their back then bring their arms together as if they were holding something and occurs in response to a loud noise.
      • Grasping relfex
        • This causes babies to curl their fingers tightly around any object places in their palm.
      • Tonic neck reflex
        • This causes babies to turn their head, arms and legs to one side when laid on their back; they flex the limbs on the opposite side
      • Stepping reflex
        • This causes babies to lift their legs as if about to walk when held upright.
      • Babinski reflex
        • This causes babies to fan then curl their toes when the bottom of their foot is stroked
      • Actions which are not under our control. Babies have primitive reflexes which disappear; they protect the baby in the first few months of life.
        • Babies are born with a set of primitive reflexes, which are sometimes called survival reflexes.
          • Some of these automatic responses stay with us for life and some disappear as the natural bodily responses take over.
            • This set of reflexes indicates that the new-born's central nervous system is in good working order.
    • Motor skills
      • Fine motor skills
        • Involve smaller movements  that require precise direction (dexterity) and use smaller muscles, for example picking up a pencil.
        • New born babies keep their hands closed most of the time. They have an automatic grasp reflex, which usually disappears by 3 months.
          • By 6 months a child will generally voluntarily grasp an object or toy and hold it.
            • By 9 months the movements in the hand become more refined and most children can use finger and thumb to hold objects (pincer grasp).
              • By 12 months they can hold a crayon using the 'palmer grasp'. By 15 months they can usually take a spoon to their mouth, and by 2 years they may begin to dress themselves.
      • Gross motor skills
        • Large movements that involve using the large muscles of the body which are required for mobility, for example rolling over.
        • when babies are born they have little control over their head if an adult does not support it
          • By 6 months they have usually have complete head control
            • By 9 months they are able to pull themselves up to a sitting position.
              • By 12 months they can stand alone, 15 months they can walk alone, 2 years most can walk up and down stairs with 2 feet on one step.
  • Rooting reflex
    • This causes babies to turn their cheek in the direction of touch and helps them to direct their mouth towards their mother's breast.

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