Physical development through the life stages

I made this brainstorm to highlight the physical development and growth throughout the life stages.

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  • Physical development
    • Childhood
      • By 2, children may run and climb stairs.
      • By 4, children may kick or throw a ball.
      • By 6, a child's head is 90% full size.
      • By 6 or 7, children may skip and ride a bike.
    • Adolescence
      • Girls generally between 11 and 13.
        • Secondary sexual characteristics: Hair grows in armpits and pubic area, breasts develop, redistribution of body fat causing hips to widen.
      • Boys generally between 13 and 15.
        • Secondary sexual characteristics: Hair grows in armpits and pubic area, facial hair, changes in larynx causing voice to deepen, redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
      • Prepares the body for sexual development, triggered by the action of hormones. -> ''Growth spurt''.
    • Adulthood
      • Young adulthood
        • Physical strength typically peaks in early adulthood (20's and 30's)
        • Slow process of decline in strength and growth afterwards. This decline is affected by health and lifestyle.
        • Although physical changes are minimal during this phase, the weight and muscle mass change as a result of diet, exercise, pregnancy and lactation.
        • Height remains stable until the age of 55, after this age bones become less dense and women lose 2 inches and men lose 1 inch in in height.
        • Weight drops after reaching 50 years, likely because we lose muscle.
        • People get shorter due to bone loss in their vertebrae. Women may experience bone loss as young as 35, whereas men may not experience this until age 65
        • Chronic health problems may surface, e.g - heart disease, hypertension(high blood pressure) or diabetes.
      • Late adulthood
        • Adjusting to retirement, decreasing strength and health, new social roles, reviewing one's life.
          • Wrinkles and age spots become more noticeable, skin loses it's elasticity and collagen. Hair becomes thinner and greyer, nails become thicker and brittle with ridges. Yellowing of teeth and sleep has more wakeful periods with more time spent lying in bed.
        • The heart: Arteries harden, vessels shrink. Reduction in the capacity of the heart to pump blood around the circulatory system. A 75 year old's heart pumps less than three quarters of the blood it pumped in early adulthood.
          • The digestive system: produces less digestive juices (constipation). Less efficient in pushing food through the system.

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