PHysical Chemistry Calculations Year 1

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  • Created on: 25-01-18 21:10
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  • Physical Chemistry- Calculations Year 1
    • Chemical Formulae
      • Acids
        • HCL
        • HNO3
        • H2SO4
        • H3PO4
      • Covalent compounds have mono-/di-/tri- prefix for # O2
        • E.g. NO2
      • Ammonia molecule (NH3) vs PART of compound (NH4)
        • NH4 (+)
      • ALL elements have same # molecules in a mole
      • MONOatomic Elements (NO COMPOUNDS are monoatomic)
        • Helium
        • Group 0
      • Difficult charges
        • Ag+ for silver
        • Zn 2+
        • N3 (-) AZIDE
        • NH4 (+)
        • CO3 (2-)
        • N (3-) for Nitride
        • SO4 (2-)
        • PO4 (3-)
    • #molecules= AVAGRADRO CONSTANT x MOLES
      • ALL elements have same # molecules in a mole
    • MASS=MR x MOLE
      • AVAGADRO = MOLE/ MASS
        • #molecules= AVAGRADRO CONSTANT x MOLES
          • WATCH MOlAR ratios
            • MASS=MR x MOLE
              • AVAGADRO = MOLE/ MASS
                • WATCH MOlAR ratios
                  • BALANCING EQUATIONS
                    • Same CHARGE both side
                    • NO matter made/ detroyed
                    • ONLY change molar ratio NOT formulae
              • Ar= (AVG. MASS of atom)      /   1/12th MASS of carbon 12-atom
            • BALANCING EQUATIONS
              • Same CHARGE both side
              • NO matter made/ detroyed
              • ONLY change molar ratio NOT formulae
        • Ar= (AVG. MASS of atom)      /   1/12th MASS of carbon 12-atom
      • LIMITING REAGENTS
        • !) Mole of each?2) multple by other molar ratio and divide by own, for both3) Decipher which limiting, and use these moles to find out mass of reactant produced
      • BACK TITRATIONS
        • IF ANALYTE:1)insoluble (e.g. CaCO3)2)not clear end point3)slow rate of reaction4)volatile
        • HOW TO ANALYSE:(1)moles of base from 25cm3 pippette(2) moles of HCl using titre value(3)Scale up Hcl moles to full solution(4)Moles HCl begun(5) minus orignal and scales up titre(6)MASS=MR x Mole
        • MASS % Error: sum of (concentration / volume) of each equipment
          • Equipment Error %: Error/ Volume x 100
          • MOLES OF SOLUTE = Conc. x VOLUME OF SOLUTION
      • IONIC EQUATIONS
        • 1) BALANCE (2) write soluble (ALL AQUEOUS and nitrates) as ions (3) CANCAL ions on both sides
      • THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
        • MgSO4.xH2O--> MgSO4 + xH2O
    • 3SF unless stated

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