WATER - Physical/human factors affecting the drainage basin system

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  • Physical and human factors affecting the drainage basin system.
    • Physical
      • CLIMATE
        • Affects the type and amount of precipitation, and evaporation. (major inputs and outputs). also influences vegetation type.
      • SOILS
        • affects the amount of infiltration and throughflow (and type of vegetation).
      • GEOLOGY
        • impacts subsurface processes such as percolation and groundwater flow (and aquifers). also affects soil formation.
      • RELIEF
        • slopes affect the amount of runoff.
      • VEGETATION
        • presence of vegetation can impact amount of interception,. infiltration and occurrence of overland flow (and transpiration).
    • Human
      • RIVER MANAGEMENT
        • construction of storage reservoirs holds back river flows.
        • abstraction of water for domestic and industrial use reduces river flow
        • Abstraction of groundwater for irrigation lowers water tables
      • DEFORESTATION
        • Clearance of trees reduces evapo-transpiration and interception, but increases infiltration and surface runoff.
      • CHANGING LAND-USE (AGRICULTURE)
        • compaction of soil increases overland flow
        • Ploughing increases infiltration by loosening soil and aerating it.
      • CHANGING LAND-USE (URBANISATION)
        • Urban surfaces (tarmac, concrete) speed up surface runoff and reduce infiltration and percolation
        • drains deliver rainfall more quickly to streams and rivers (increases flooding).
      • EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, INFILTRATION, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE RUNOFF
      • Amazonia - deforestation:lowers humidities, reduces precipitation, more surface runoff and infiltration, more evaporation, less transpiration, more soil erosion.

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