physical adolescence

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  • Physical Adolescence
    • adolescence
      • An important life stage following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult
        • During adolescence, some of the most noticeable changes between males and females begin to occur.
          • Both males and females will experience a number of physical and growth changes.
    • Puberty and sexual characteristics
      • Puberty takes place over several years
        • it is a period of rapid change and growth and is experienced by both males and females
      • Primary sexual characteristics
        • relate to the changes and development of reproductive organs (which are present at birth and develop during puberty).
          • male
            • Enlargement of penis and testes
            • spontaneous erections caused by blood flowing into chambers in the penis may happen
            • the testicles begin to produce sperm, beginning of ***********.
          • female
            • The uterus(womb) enlarges and the vagina lengthens
            • The ovaries begin to release eggs
            • The menstrual cycle commences
      • secondary sexual characteristics
        • Outward signs of development from a child into a man or woman (which develop during puberty).
          • male
            • changes in larynx (Adams apple) causing voice to deepen.
            • hair grows in armpits and pubic area, facial hair
            • redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
          • female
            • hair grows in armpits and pubic area
            • breasts develop and the areola swells and darkens
            • Redistribution of body fat causing hips to widen.
    • puberty
      • A period of rapid growth during which young people reach sexual maturity and become biologically able to reproduce and secondary sexual characteristics develop.
        • puberty in girls often starts between theages of 11-13 although it can start earlier.
          • puberty is a development stage that prepares the bodyfor sexual reproduction.
            • boys generally start puberty later, often between 13-15.
            • it is triggered by the action of hormones that control sexual development
              • both boys and girls may experience a 'growth spurt' where they grow taller and at a faster rate than before.
        • boys generally start puberty later, often between 13-15.
    • Hormones
      • chemical substances produced in the body and transported in the blood stream that control or regulate body cells body organs.
        • For example, the sex hormones produced by the ovaries and testes are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in puberty.
      • male hormones
        • the main male hormone is testosterone.
          • the testes start to produce testosterone which stimulates sperm production, indicating the onset of fertility.
            • testosterone is also responsible for the devolopment of secondary sexual characteristics such as a deeper pitch and toneof voice.
      • female hormones
        • the main female hormones are oestrogen and progesterone
          • the ovaries start to produce oestrogenand progesterone which are responsible for changes including ovulation and menstration.
            • the first period isa significant, notable change for young females as it indicates the onsetof fertility.
    • The roleof hormones in sexual maturity.
      • sex hormones are responsible for the changes that occur in puberty.
        • the pituitary gland contols the release of sex hormones  in both females and males.
          • the release of sex hormones controls the onset and rate of puberty, the physical changes such as pubic and axillary hair growth and egg and sperm production.
            • oit can prove to be a difficult time for young people as levels of hormones going up and down can often cause mood swings.

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