Photosynthesis part one

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  • Photosynthesis (part one)
    • structure and functions of chloroplasts
      • chloroplasts are cell organelles found in plants cells and are where the light independent and dependent stages of photosynthesis take place
      • they have a double membrane known as an envelope it is a phospholipid bilayer
        • there is an intermembrane space between the outer and inner membrane space
        • the outer membrane is permeable to many small ions
      • the inner membrane is also a phospholipid bilayer
        • on the inside of the mitochondria is filled with a fluid that contains starke and oil droplets. enzymes for light independent reactions and DNA used to produce the enzymes this is called the stroma
    • light reactions
      • the role of water
        • this is what happens to water
          • 2H2O=> 4H(^+) + O2 + 4e^-
        • the electrons are used in then transported though electron carriers to replace those loss by the oxidation of chlorophyll
        • the H^+ ions are used to create a proton gradient for chemiosmosis to produce ATP
          • these are then picked up by by the coenzyme NADP^+ and used in the calvin cycle
        • the oxygen is released as waste out the chloroplast through the palisade and spongy mesophyll  layers and out through the stomata
      • photophosphorylation (cyclic)
        • step one= water is split
          • water is split due to photolysis using the energy from the sun at photosystem 2
          • step two the movement of electrons
            • the electrons are picked up by an electron acceptor and passed along a chain of electron acceptors
              • it is then passed to photosystem 1 these are then passed to more electron cartriers till they are accepted by NADP^+
            • step three the movement of protons
              • the protons are trapped in the thylakoid space this leads to a build of positive charge and the protons want to escape
                • they can only escape through protein channels connected to ATP synthase
      • photophosphorylation (non cyclic)
    • the light reactions also known as the dark reactions!!!
      • occur in the stroma
      • carbon dioxide is used in this set of reactions for the production of large organic molecules
      • the calvin cycle
        • carbon dioxide
          • rubisco
            • an enzyme used to fix carbon dioxide and a five carbon molecule called RuBP
            • 2X glycerate phosphate
              • a three carbon compound
              • used to produce amino acids
              • used to produce fatty acid tails
                • combined with fatty acids to make lipids
                  • lipids
              • 2 triose phosphates (TP)
                • Glycerol
                  • combined with fatty acids to make lipids
                    • lipids
                • RuBP( a 5 carbon compound)
                  • rubisco
                    • an enzyme used to fix carbon dioxide and a five carbon molecule called RuBP
                    • 2X glycerate phosphate
                      • a three carbon compound
                      • used to produce amino acids
                      • used to produce fatty acid tails
                        • 2 triose phosphates (TP)
                          • Glycerol
                            • RuBP( a 5 carbon compound)
              • step one=
                • carbon dioxide enters the leaf through the stomata
                • step two =
                  • carbon dioxide is combined with a five carbon compound called RuBP
                  • step 3
                    • this is unstable so splits into two three carbon molecules GP
                    • step 4=
                      • this is then oxidised and has a phosphate added to it to make TP
                      • step 5=
                        • steps one to four are repeated three times with five triose phosphates being regenerated into RuBP and one being released
                          • this must happen six times to make a hexose sugar
        • as the protons travel down the channel past the ATP synthase they cause the ATP synthase to rotate combining ADP and one inorganic phosphate into ATP
          • they can only escape through protein channels connected to ATP synthase
          • the protons are then picked up by NADP^+ along with the electrons and taken to the calvin cycle

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