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      • chlorophyll in chloroplasts absorb sunlight, using its energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
      • converts light energy into chemical energy which is stored in glucose
      • carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen (+ energy)
      • 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • LEAVES
      • waxy cuticle
        • reduces water loss by evaporation and acts as a barrier
      • palisade mesophyll cells
        • near top of leaf and contain many chloroplasts
      • upper epidermis
        • transparent: light can pass through to palisade layer
      • broad
        • large SA
      • xylem cells
        • deliver water and nutrients to photosynthesising cells
      • phloem cells
        • carry sucrose away from leaf to rest of plant
      • lower epidermis
        • contain stomata, which air passes through to bring carbon dioxide to photosynthesising cells
      • spongy mesophyll
        • contains chloroplasts & many air spaces -> carbon dioxide can diffuse to palisade mesophyll cells
      • light
        • increase of light = steady increase of photosynthesis
        • once it no longer has an effect, either carbon dioxide or temp is a limiting factor
      • temperature
        • increase of temp = increase in photosynthesis
        • too high (45), enzymes denature and rate rapidly decreases
      • carbon dioxide
        • increase in concentration= increase in photosynthesis
        • more in night: no photosynthesis an less absorbed by plants
      • nitrates
        • contain nitrogen for animo acids and proteins
        • lack of this = stunted growth and yellow older leaves
        • needed for cell growth
      • magensium
        • needed for making chlorophyll
        • lack of this = yellow leaves


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