Phobias Mid unit

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • PHOBIAS
    • Explain the issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of phobic disorders
      • Validity means truth
        • All people with similar disorders should be categorised the same
          • Comorbidity- two or more conditions occur
          • Concurrent- correlating new ways or measuring phobias with existing ones
          • Construct- Does the test really measure the symptoms?
      • Reliability means the same outcome
        • inter-rater reliability- to independent tests should provide the same result
        • Test-retest reliability- whether the tests are consistent
        • SCID scale and questionnaires
        • SKYRE- got people to interview patients using the SCID, same outcomes- RELIABLE
        • HILLER- used test retest with the MDC and reported it is successful still
    • Outline and evaluate biological explanations
      • A01- we inherit an oversensitive fear response therefore causes us to have high levels of arousal and increased adrenaline
        • Family studies- if someone suffers from a phobia in your family it increases the chnaces of you suffering from one too
          • SOLYOM- 45% of phobic disorders had a relative with the disorder
        • Twin studies- similarity of phobias between twins
          • TORGESON- compared MZ and DZ twins where one had an anxiety disorder. More common in identical twins
            • PREPARDENESS- innate readiness to learn about dangerous things- biologically prepared to learn fears and their stimuli's
              • The diathesis stress model- Genetic inheritance cna cause early expereinces however environmental stressors can cause trauma as well
      • A02
        • Not solely genetic- Environmental factors- Diathesis stress model
          • Benett/levey study- questionnaire- social desireabilty
        • KAGAN supports- children with behavioural inhibition born to withdraw from certain objects
        • Brain scanning- dopamine is low within patients with Social phobias
    • Clinical characteristics of phobic disorders
      • Agrophobia- anxiety about being in places you can't escape
        • 2.7% of the population suffer from it
          • shopping malls
          • women twice as likely to suffer
          • Early adulthood onset
        • fear of dying or loosing control
      • Specific phobias- intense rational fear about object or situation
        • most common in women
        • 12% of the population experience it
        • Injections
        • 4 main types
      • Social phobias- excessive and persistent fear
        • 12% westernised population experience it
        • 3:2 ratio (women and men)
        • eating in public
        • Late childhood
        • anxiety attacks
      • Diagnostic criteria
        • persistent or excessive.
          • produce anxiety response
          • recognized as by the person that it is unreasonable
          • The avoidance of the fearful thing
          • 18 or younger has to occur more than for 6 months
    • Evolutionary approach
      • Prepotency- Once we experience something that happened in a negative way we wont do it agian
        • Prepardenss- we want to learn about dangerous situations
          • SUPPORT- ohman- conditioned fears into people using electric shocks
        • Ancient fears- our ancestors had morre fearful things to be afraid of whereas fears today havent been around longer enough to be adapted too.
          • Cultural differences- different phobias
        • SUPPORT- ohman/ soars- masked feared pictures of animals to two groups
    • Psychological Explanations
      • Psychodynamic, behaviourist and cognitive
        • The idea that our ID and Ego cause anxiety through our suppressed thoughts
          • Little Hans- 5 year old little boy who was scared of white horses as they resembled his father
            • lacks objectivity- interpreted in ways it would match Freud evidence- "don't trot away from me"
            • Ungeneralisable as it is a case study
            • Bowlby- agoraphobia often occurs in people with family conflicts like little hans with his father
        • We learn phobias through classical and operant conditioning
          • Little albert- Baby conditioned to be scared of white rats by waton and rayner
            • Social learning theory links with behaviorists because we are learning to observe other peoples phobias from their behaviour when we are younger
              • Bandura
            • Watson and rayners study was unethial as they mentally scarred the child
            • Ungeneraliable as it was a cae stuy on one baby
            • Waton and rayners experiement can explain how we can learn fear through conditioning
        • We get phobic disorders because we develop negative thinking towards the problem or object our thoughts are just interpretations of esisting experiences
          • Dysfunctional beliefs- overestimating hat the risks could be of a certain situation
          • Sociocultural explanations-different attitudes within cultures can determine the outcome of cetain phobias
  • Evaluation for reliability and validity- Kendler study of face to face telepohne interviews
  • Bennett-levy and marteau- Many of the childrens parents had the same phobias as the same sorts of animals. Found this through questionnaire and informal interviews
  • TORGESON- compared MZ and DZ twins where one had an anxiety disorder. More common in identical twins
    • PREPARDENESS- innate readiness to learn about dangerous things- biologically prepared to learn fears and their stimuli's
      • The diathesis stress model- Genetic inheritance cna cause early expereinces however environmental stressors can cause trauma as well
  • Prepotency- Once we experience something that happened in a negative way we wont do it agian
    • Prepardenss- we want to learn about dangerous situations
      • SUPPORT- ohman- conditioned fears into people using electric shocks
    • Ancient fears- our ancestors had morre fearful things to be afraid of whereas fears today havent been around longer enough to be adapted too.
      • Cultural differences- different phobias
    • SUPPORT- ohman/ soars- masked feared pictures of animals to two groups
  • Biological treatments
    • CBT
    • Psychosurgery
    • Systematic desentisation
    • Drugs
    • A02

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Phobic disorders resources »