Philosophy - Cosmological Argument

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  • Philosophy - The Cosmological Argument
    • What The Cosmological Argument Is
      • A Posteriori argument - based on empirical evidence
      • 'Cosmos' meaning 'universe' it is the argument that seeks to prove the existence of God through the beginning of the universe
      • Based on the claim that everything existing in the universe exists because it was caused by something else - that 'something' is considered to be God
    • St Thomas Aquinas' Version
      • Summa Theologica - Aquinas' 3 Ways
        • 2. From Cause
          • Aquinas believed that the chain of cause and effect in the universe could not go on forever, there had to be an ultimate start, an uncaused cause - God
            • E.g. Dominoes falling - each domino knocks the next in the line down but something had to set off the chain of cause and effect
        • 1. From Motion
          • proposed that all objects had the potential to change and become something different. for this change to occur a third party had to be involved.
            • Aquinas expanded on this to prove God's existence by saying that this chain of actualization cannot go on forever, there must have been a first unmoved mover - God
            • E.g. a piece of marble has the potential to become a statue with the help of a sculptor
          • Inspired by Aristotle's ideas on potential and change
            • Greek philosopher - famously a student of Plato
        • 3. From Contigency
          • Based on the fact that everything around us exists contingently (is reliant upon something else)
            • Aquinas expanded upon this by saying that if everything around us is contingent then there must have been a time when none of these things existed but they cannot cause themselves to come into existence so something else must have caused this.
              • Aquinas however, argued that God could not be contingent because then God would have needed something to bring him into existence - thus God is of necessary existence
      • 13th Century Italian Philosopher
      • Scholar, monk and teacher
    • Kalam Version
      • William Lane Craig (1979)
        • Chronological events and history prove that there must be a beginning to the universe
      • Al-Kindi and Al-Ghazali
        • the possibility and impossibility of potential and actual infinities
      • God as a personal creator
        • If the universe began to exist, and is caused, then the cause of the universe must be a personal being who freely chose to create the world.
      • E.L. Miller
        • Time began when the universe began and the beginning was an event so something must havecaused it - God
    • Gottfried Leibniz's Version
      • 17th Century philosopher and mathematician
      • Accepted the cosmological argument simply because he felt there had to be sufficient reason for the universe's existence
      • Interpretation of History
        • avoided the problem of infinite regression by interpreting history as an endless series of explanations not events.
    • Support For The Arguments
      • Richard Swinburne
      • Frederick R. Copleston
    • Criticisms Of The Argument
      • Criticisms of Aquinas' Version
        • Anthony Kenny
      • Criticisms of the Kalam version
        • Edward Tyron and modern physics
      • Criticisms of the whole argument
        • The Big Bang Theory
          • Support For The Arguments
            • Richard Swinburne
            • Frederick R. Copleston
        • Brian Davies
        • Immanuel Kant
        • Bertrand Russell
        • David Hume
  • E.L. Miller
    • Time began when the universe began and the beginning was an event so something must havecaused it - God

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