Personality excluding key study explanations and practical implications

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    • Personality is made up of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. Personality comes from within the individual, it remains constant throughout life but can develop as a result of experience.
      • KS- Thomas, Chess and Birch (1977)
    • Temperament refers to the inherited aspects of personality. it is the way people respond to the environment and it remains constant throughout life.
      • KS--Buss and plomin (1984) Kagan and snidman (1991)
    • Eysenck believed that there are different personality types, his theory is called a 'type theory'. For each personality there are associated traits. He believed that the different personalities were caused by the type of nervous system.
      • EXTROVERT: -sociable-lively-easy going - many freinds - enjoys parties
      • NEUROTIC- moody- shy-tense-irritabe-anxious
      • INTROVERT- spend time alone-small number of friends-serious-organised-likes routine
      • Measures extroversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability.Made up of a series of yes/no questions. The two dimensions are not related so individuals can be identified as neurotic extrovert, neurotic introvert, stable extrovert or stable introvert
      • Measures extroversion, introversion and neuroticism aswell as psychoticism. Most people score low on this dimension but those with high scores are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel. The 3 dimensions are not linked so 3 seperate scores are given
    • Extroversion: A personality type that describes people who look to the outside world for entertainment
    • Introversion: A personality type that describes people who are content with their own company
    • Neurtoticism: A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear
    • Psycholoticism: A third dimension identified by Eysenck . People who score igh on this dimesnion are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel
    • Type Theory: Personality types are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits.
    • AMYGDALA:part of the limbic system and is in the temporal lobe. It is involved with memory, emotion and fear
      • it is responsible for learning from negative consequences of our actions, It responds to fear and sad facial expressions. So we usually learn to avoid behaviour that will upset others. It is believed that people with APD have an impairment in their amygdala. As a result they do not learn to avoid behaviour that harms others.
    • Grey Matter: Outer layer of the brain. This area is involved with muscle control, sensory perceptions, memory and speech
      • Reduction of grey matter in the pre-frontal cortex has also been associated with APD . This area is where we learn to feel guilt etc. people with APD are less likely to feel remorse for wring doing or behave morally.
    • Pre-frontal cortex: Located at the front and is involved in expressing personality and appropriate social behaviour
      • People with APD have been known to have smaller pre-frontal cortices. This area o the brain is associated with moral and social behaviour and guilt. So if smaller, they may feel less remorse and guilt.
    • Situational causes of APD
      • APD may be caused by the situation someone is brought up in when they are growing up.
        • Socioeconomic factors-low income nd poor housing
        • Quality of life at home including poor parenting
        • Educational factors including low school achievement and leaving school at an early age


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