Charles and Personal Rule

Notes on everything that occurs in the Personal Rule of Charles I's reign

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  • Created by: Zoe
  • Created on: 10-05-13 17:10
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  • Personal Rule 1629-1641
    • Religion
      • Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633 after Abbots death
        • Laud's Aims
          • Restore "beautiful holiness" to services.
            • Ceremonies
            • Alter
          • Restore wide power/influence in politics and society from before the reformation
          • Raise educational level of the Church clergy
        • Opposition to Laud
          • His belief in divine right
            • Laudians preached absolute obedience to royal will
            • Everything he did had a political aspect
          • Choice of ceremonies
            • Bowing at Jesus's name and decorated churches
              • Angered Puritans
            • Return to Roman Catholic services
              • Laudians were suspected secret papists
        • Wasn't Catholic but didn't hold any prejudice against them
          • Offered Cardinal 1634 but he refused
            • "With Rome as it is"
            • Weak refusal created suspicion
        • Used Star Chamber to punish his enemies
      • Case of Burton, Prynne + Bastwick
        • Punished for libels against bishops
          • Treated like martyrs for Protestant causes
        • Ears were clipped
        • Attempt to silence opposition
          • Did the opposite, it created a larger opposition
      • Juxon (Bishop) became Lord treasurer
        • Gave indication that church was taking over government
      • Book of Sports 1633
        • Reissued by Laud
        • Angered puritans
        • Laud became suspicious of lecturers who preached on Sunday
          • They had strong puritan views
          • Laud took away licences for  lecturers
    • Financial Problems
      • War could not continue without subsidies
        • Made peace with France 1630
        • Made peace with Spain 1631
      • Pushed legal rights and revived old royal revenue devices
        • Forest fines
        • Distrait of Knighthood
        • Nuisances
        • Monopolies
        • Plantations
        • Customs farmers
        • Court of Wards
        • Ship Money
          • Held strongest opposition
          • Collected every year from 1634-40
          • Navy weren't protection coast, but defending Spain!
      • Hampden's Case 1637
        • John Hampden refused to pay ship money
        • Questioned if King was allowed to collect it
        • King won case 7 to 5
        • If King didn't have right to decided emeranices, constitutional rights were being ignored
      • Failures
        • Kingdom hated his policies
        • War could not be funded
      • Successes
        • Charles managed to survive without the need of subsides
        • Reached a financial standstill
    • Charles's Court
      • Henrietta Maria
        • After Buckingham died, Charles found affection for Maria
        • Continued to try to convert members of the court
        • Not entirely    influential
          • Hated Laud and Strafford but Charles continued to trust them
        • Converted Portland
          • Gentry became suscpicous of them
      • Set apart from the country
        • Catholicism   suspected,    court behaving as popist
          • Gustavs Adolphus Death - Court not allowed to mourn as was tradition
          • Two papal   ambassadors    attended court until late 1630's
        • Dangerously out of touch with the nation, 1632 gentry ordered to leave the court
      • Indigo Jones built buildings for Charles - European in style
        • Banqueting Hall
        • Masques, costumes made
          • Mirror held to the king, showed representing subjects
          • Unrealistic, showing King as divine
    • Foreign Policy
      • Thirty Years War
        • Peace made with Spain and France
        • Country gentry saw war as religious battle
        • Charles supported Spain
          • Unpopular, English wanted to support Dutch
        • Factors
          • Staying out of war was natural, England was relativity peaceful
          • Expirience with Parliament made Charles reluctant to commit to war for Protestant causes
          • Misjudgment to pursue "neutrality" that was not even
            • Seen as Catholic conspiracy
    • Downfall of Personal Rule
      • Scottish Crisis
        • Act of Revocation
          • Cancelled grants of royal land
          • Scottish land owners lost money
          • Worry that church land would return to the church
            • Causing strong church for Roman Catholic model to become used
      • Laudianism and Scotland
        • Laudian ceremonial Coronation
          • Offended Scots
        • Scottish National Covenant     rejected the canons and prayer book
        • 1638, Scottish National Assembly abolishes High Commission and Bishops
          • An army was raised, more professional than Charles's due to fighting in Thirty Years War
      • Prayer book
        • Scots livid
        • Laud wanted England and Scotland in line with each other
          • English prayer book introduced into Scotland 1637
          • 1636 royal proclamation issued canons concerning church services
            • Scottish National Covenant     rejected the canons and prayer book
      • Weakness of English
        • "Perfect militas" paid for by tax
          • Equipment was extremely poor
        • Most hadn't used guns before
          • Professional soldiers were supposed to train militas but they were not paid by locals and so refused
        • Many didn't want to fight because they hated Laud
    • First Bishops War
      • Charles spent £185,000
      • Commander Arundel was incompetent
      • Earl of Strafford called from Ireland to solve situation but he could do nothing
        • Advised Charles to call Parliament
          • He thought that they would be loyal to the crown
          • Charles had few options
            • Military costs were £600,000 by 1640 and city of London refused to give him a requested £100,000 and gave him 10% instead
            • He called Parliament      because he had no choice

Comments

megan

Very helpful, thank you!

spahan17

Really good resource, thanks!

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