SIMPLE Personal Rule

Simple mindmap of Charles I's Personal Rule

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  • Created by: lucyf
  • Created on: 04-05-14 12:20
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  • Personal Rule (1629-1640)
    • Downfall of Personal Rule
      • Prayer book
        • Introduced 1637
        • Scottish National Covenant rejected
          • 1636 canons
      • Weakness of English
        • 'Perfect militias'
        • Hated Laud
      • Scottish crisis
        • Act of Revocation
          • Cancelled royal land grants
      • Laudianism and Scotland
        • 1636 canons
        • In line with English Church
      • War with Scotland
        • First Bishops War
          • Spent over £185,000
          • Strafford recalled from Ireland - couldn't solve
            • Advised Charles called Parliament
              • Thought would be loyal
              • Had few options
                • Military costs = £600,000 by 1640
                • City of London gave 10% of requested £100,000 loan
          • Commander Arundel = incomepetent
        • Second Bishops War
          • Failure of Short Parliament = new outbreak of fighting
            • English beaten at Newcastle
              • Scots capture (London's coal supply)
              • Occupy 6 northern counties
          • July - Charles confiscates bullion in Tower (English merchants')
            • Keeps £30,000 as loan
              • Angered merchants + worsens relations with City
              • Seen as desperate measure
          • Ended by Treaty of Ripon (October 1640)
            • Negotiated by Council of Peers
            • Complete humiliation for Charles
            • £850 per day to Scots
              • Couldn't afford
                • Forced to call Parliament (3 November)
    • Foreign Policy
      • 30 Years War
        • Uneven neutrality - supported Spain
          • Catholic - not Protestant Dutch
      • Peace with France (1630) + Spain (1631)
        • England = comparatively peacefull
          • Trading opportunities
    • Ireland
      • Wentworth - Lord Deputy (1633)
        • Only ally = Laud
          • 'Thorough'
        • Hated in Ireland + feared in England
          • Alienated all Irish society
      • Parliament reduced to 'rubber stamp'
      • Protestant Church remodelled - Laudian
      • Powerful army
    • Religion
      • Laud = Archbishop of Canterbury 1633
        • Bishops = Laudians when died
        • Humble background
        • Divine right
        • Offered Cardinal (1634) - refusal = not strong enough
          • 'With Rome as it is'
      • Laud aims
        • Star Chamber - punish political enemies
        • Restore power + influence of Church in politics + society
          • Independent of gentry - resented
        • Restore 'beauty of holiness'
          • Altar controversy
          • Vestments
          • Ceremony
        • Raise educational status of clergy
          • 'Equal to any gentleman'
      • Burton, Bastwick + Prynne (1637)
        • Punished for 'libels against bishops'
        • Attempt to silence opposition - enlargened
      • Book of Sports (1633)
        • Reissued (first in James)
        • Took away licences from lecturers
      • Juxton (Bishop of London) = Lord Treasurer
        • Indicated Church taking over government
    • Charles' court
      • Henrietta Maria
        • Catholic faction developed
          • Converted Portland
          • Gentry = suspicious
        • Not entirely influential (hated Laud + Strafford)
        • Affection after Buckingham death
      • Set apart from country
        • Catholic conspiracy
          • Papal ambassadors until late 1630s
      • European style buildings
        • Inigo Jones - design
        • Reubens's ceiling - Banqueting House
      • Masques
    • Short Parliament (April - May 1640)
      • Led by Pym
      • Laud issued canons with clear support for divine right - anger
      • Commons demanded grievances resolved before subsidies
      • Charles dismisses rather than argue (beneath dignity)
    • Financial Problems
      • Successes
        • Portland (Treasurer until 1636) = inc. revenue 25% + reduced royal debt
        • Survived without subsidies
      • Failures
        • Couldn't fund war
        • Hated for legally dubious measures
      • No war without subsidies
        • Ended wars with France + Spain
      • Prerogative rights
        • Ship Money
          • Controversial - right to declare 'emergency'
          • Hampden case
            • Only 7/12 supported King
          • Collected every year from 1634 ('pirates')
          • £190,000 p.a. first 3 years
        • Court of Wards
        • Customs farmers
        • Plantations
          • Alienated City of London (Irish)
            • Didn't agree to 1639 loan to fight Scots
        • Monopolies
          • Loophole - grant to companies
            • Popish soap
        • Distraint of Knighthood
          • Didn't take inflation to account (any land over £40)
          • Become unpopular under James
        • Forest fines
          • Salisbury - £20,000
          • Rockingham forest - 6 > 60 square miles
        • Nuisances
          • Building outside London walls
  • Laudianism and Scotland
    • In line with English Church
  • Restore power + influence of Church in politics + society
    • Independent of gentry - resented
  • Gentlemen - treated as common criminals (pillory, ears)
    • Burton, Bastwick + Prynne (1637)
      • Punished for 'libels against bishops'
      • Attempt to silence opposition - enlargened
    • Treated like martyrs for protestant cause (flowers, hankerchiefs)
  • Angered Puritans
    • Book of Sports (1633)
      • Reissued (first in James)
      • Took away licences from lecturers

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