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  • Periodicity
    • 'Show a repeating pattern of properties in each row'
    • The Periodic Table
      • Arranges elements in order of increasing atomic number. Consists of horizontal rows or periods and vertical columns or groups
      • Split into several blocks, in each block the elements have their outermost electron in a particular type of orbital
        • In the s block, the outermost electrons are in an s orbital, in the p block the outermost electrons are in p orbitals
      • For the elements in groups 1-7 the number of outer shell electrons is the same as the group number
      • Group 0, the noble gases have a full outer shell of 8 electrons
      • The outer electron configuration shows periodicity: it varies in roughly repeating patterns across each period
    • Many physical and chemical properties are influenced by the outer shell configuration of an atom.
      • Boiling point increases down the group
      • Ionisation Energy: Decreases down the group, increases across a period
      • Ionic Radius: Increases down the group, decreases across a period
    • Reactivity and Periodicity
      • For the metals, the reactivity increases moving down the group
        • This can be explained by ionisation energies. The group one metals will lose an electron with a 1+ charge.The less energy needed to remove the electron, the more likely it is to happen and therefore the more reactive the metal. Ionisation energy increases down the group, so reactivity increases


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