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  • Perception
    • Key Concepts
      • Perception - The way you think you see something
      • Sensation - The inputting of information from our environment around us
      • Visual Constancies
        • Shape
          • You have percieved it to have changed shape but it has not
        • Colour
          • You have percieved it to have changed colour but it is the same as before
      • Illusions:
        • Ambigious Figure: Can be seen in more than one way
        • Fiction: This is where you see something that is not actually there
        • Geometric: Where something is changed to make us either think it moves or something is not there.
      • Depth Cues
        • Height in the plane: Closer it is to the horizon, the further away it is.
        • Superimposition: When something is over another object it seems closer.
        • Texture gradient: Fine details are closer whereas further away objects are vague
        • Relative size: When a smaller object is shown higher up, it seems further away.
        • Linear perspective: When parallel lines converge and look like they are moving together further away.
    • Core Theory: Constructivist Theory
      • Our perception is based on our past experiences
      • Perception is LEARNT
      • Past experiences, thoughts and expectations affect how you see the world around you
        • Perception is dominated by what we expect to see
      • Perceptual set: Our expectations and motivations
    • Alternative Theory: Nativist Theory
      • Perception is an instinct and supports nature in being responsible for perception.
      • Instinct and biology is important
      • Starts with sensory data and then works it way down to be interpretted
      • 'Analysing images is as natural as breathing'
      • Inborn abilities
    • Core Study: Haber and Levin (2001)
      • Aim: To investigate whether depth perception is changed by our past experiences of standard, non-standard and geometric shapes.
      • Conclusion: The participants' estimates for the real world objects which could be different sizes, were not so accurately guessed as standard shapes.
      • This study supports the constructivist theory because it is based on our past experiences.
      • Limitations / Evaluation
        • It cannot be generalised because of the small sample size of 9.
        • It was only done on American students - Does not represent the whole of the population.
        • No ecological validity as it does not represtn what would happen in real life
        • Too subjectivew - Unsure whether guessing
        • There could be peer influence as the participants were in groups. This could should what the group thinks rather than the individual.
    • Application of research: Advertising
      • Subliminal messages: This is a brief sound or image that is directed to us without being aware of it
      • Advertising for the brain: Left side processes information. Right side processes emotion.
      • Context advertising: Percieving something to be better than what is really is. This changes the thought and ideas of the product.


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