PEOPLE AND THE PLANET

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  • PEOPLE & THE PLANET: CASE STUDYS
    • POPULATION DYNAMICS
      • Pro-Natal Policy:Singapore 1984
        • Anti natalist policies =Declining birth rate & population
        • "Have three or more...if you can afford it"
        • Incentive for having children -tax rebates,cheap nurseries, apartments and access to the best school
          • Increasing maternity leave to 12 weeks for the first four babies
          • Paying $1000 for six years into a special account
        • Migration policy to increase amount of people of child bearing age
        • 13.6% increase in birth rates in 1988
      • Anti-natal Policy: Chinas one child policy
        • Huge population increase = wide spread famine in mid 20th century
        • 1979: policy limiting people to one child
          • Forced abortions and sterilisation
            • 2000, it was reported that 90 per cent of foetuses aborted in China were female
              • gender balance of the Chinese population has become distorted. Today it is thought that men outnumber women by more than 60 million.
          • rate of population growth is now 0.7 per cent
          • keenly resisted in rural areas, where it was traditional to have large families
        • incentives: cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, better childcare, preferential access to housing
          • more than one child didn't receive these benefits and were fined.
    • DEVELOPMENT
      • TANZANIA  Core:Dar es Salaam 83.19% Periphery: Kilamanjaro 2.49% Arusha: 3.16%
        • Fertile soils- located near important markets (trade)- good communication links- healthy, warm climate- river/sea ports providing important trade routes
        • - poor soils- distant from the core and trade routes- difficult communications, especially by road- disease, e.g. malaria- climate hazards, e.g. droughts, floods, etc.
      • GDP:Product per capita is the total income of a country in a year divided by its population
      • HDI:scale combining several different factors of development, including income, education and life expectancy
      • Environmental Performance Index: uses 22 indicators to determine the health of people and the natural environment.
      • Gender Inequality Index:considers the level of female participation, and decision-making process in the workplace, the level of education of women, and their degree of control over pregnancy
    • GLOBALISATION
      • NIKE
    • CHALLENGES OF AN URBANISING WORLD
      • LONDON
        • CONGESTION CHARGES
          • 12% increase in cycle journeys within the zon 
        • Boris Bikes-13,600 £2 a day
        • hybrid buses-2,300 electric buses- 71
          • reduce CO2 emissions by at least 30% compared to a diesel bus
      • CURRITUBA
        • Efficient, cheap bus system 70% of population use 2.6 million people everyday (alternative fuels)
        • use 30% less fuel than 8 other brazilian cities
      • YORK
        • York eco-footprint= 5.4 hectares per person ENERGY =24% (heating 60%) FOOD=26%
          • 85,000 tonnes of waste 2011
        • shower instead of bath = 40% less turn down 1' = save 10% off bill
        • recover 70% of methane for electricity
        • park and ride service = reduce congestion
      • MEXICO CITY
        • 13,000  tonnes of waste every day (system can only remove 9,000)
          • contaminates water, dumped in open grounds = disease
            • more sewage plants, rainfall tanks
          • more recycling, more composting, build new plant
        • 1000 deaths due to air pollution in 1998
          • 1.change legal formula for petrol 2.new bike share = 4000 bikes 275 stations 3.$2 billion underground train line reduce congestion
      • 2010, 80% of the total population in the Uk lived in urban areas
      • LAOS, NIGERIA
        • Megaslums: 1.5 million on 8km2
        • 1950:300,000 2015:23 million
        • 10,000 migrate everyday
        • 90% of jobs in Africa in the informal economy
      • CHALLENGE
        • london 161 Litres a day 20 million tonnes of rubbish = £260 million for landfill
        • Beijing 2006: 3 mill 2011:5 mill
          • 2 mill deaths worldwide from polluted water
    • CHANGING ECONOMY IN UK
      • SOUTH: £613 WEEKLY EARNING 6% UNEMPLOTMENT, 4 major airports, M25 and many other motorways, tertiary and quaternary employment
      • NORTH: £455 WEEKLY WAGE, 10.3% UNEMPLOYMENT, deindustrialisation 1960:250,000 2010:20,000 1/6 claim benefits (becoming centre for quaternary)
        • North East, the number of companies with biotech interests has gone from only 28 in 2003 to 54 in 2011, contributing £700 million to the economy and providing 5,000 jobs for people
      • SHEFFIELD
        • ndustrialization 120,000 people lost their jobs between 1971-2008, a 74% loss.
        • Water and air quality increase, Regeneration
          • derelict land, pressure on greenfield sites,traffic
      • Home working Teleworking
        • self-employed people in 2002 was only 3.3 million, however in 2011 it went up to 4.5 million
      • Green sector employmentEurope has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 20% by 2020 and to obtain 20% of its energy from renewable sources
      • In 2011, there were 2.6 million foreign workers in the UK.

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