SO305 Penology

  • Created by: livvyt2
  • Created on: 09-05-18 15:44
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    • Garland
      • 'tough-on crime' policies have led to more arrests and consequent incarcerations
    • Foucalt
      • processes of self-surveillance have infiltrated society and have thus encouraged broad conformity.
        • Foucalt fails to acknowledge that many prisoners pay no regard for the addition al surveillancesociety and commit crimes anyway.
    • 'Overuse of Prison': Other alternatives have lower reoffending rates and don't remove the individual from society.
      • Alternatives to prison include curfews, community service, treatment orders and electronic tagging.
    • Some sociologists have argued that there is a trend towards 'transcarceration'- a shift in the individual between different controlling/ welfare agencies throughout their lives. (Lowman, Menzies et al.)
    • MARXISTS: Prison ignores the failings in society that led to the crime, i.e. Inequality.
      • Left Realists argue that the criminal cannot fully be absolved of blame due to the conditions of society completely since the crime is an individual act.
      • Victims are also likely to be working class so the argument that the crime will be in rebellion to class oppression is not valid.
    • Prison effects the dynamic of the labour market.
      • 1. Prison 2. Loses job 3. Unemployment after prison release 4. Crime
    • FUNCTIONALISTS: Prison reinforces social regulation.
      • However, it appears ineffective at restoring social equilibrium since reoffending rates are so high.


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