Peace and Conflict

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  • Peace and Conflict
    • Peace is the absence of conflict and violence
      • Peace= everyone in the world lives in harmony, no conflict.
      • Organisations like the UN work to find peaceful solutions to disputes and end wars.
      • All major religions encourage believers to work towards achieving peace
      • Pacifism= the belief that war and physical violence is wrong. Pacifists who refuse to fight are called conscientious objectors.
      • Conscientious objectors suffered humiliation in prison and after their release.
    • Violence has many different forms
      • Crime is a source of violence eg murder, assault.
      • Violence can occur in protests if the protesters are violent.
      • Terrorism= when a person or group deliberately seeks to cause fear and inflict suffering.
      • War is when two or more countries fight one another. Usually decided by governments.
      • War and terrorism have caused many deaths.
      • Many religious people believe in the sanctity of life argument, that life given by God is sacred, so war and terrorism are in direct conflict with this
    • Wars can have many causes
      • Religion has been the cause of many conflicts in the past and the present
      • Self-defence is when wars are started to combat a threat from another country or to stop them attacking first
      • Tribalism tends to trigger wars when a group of people fight for their own independence
      • Wars are fought to defend the honour and dignity of a country, or to save face.
      • Acts of aggression are condemned by the UN, so purely economic wars are few and fare between
      • A war may be started in revenge for something.
    • Many people think there can be just wars
      • Although peace is ideal, many recognise that sometimes war is necessary. Just War theory is a philosophical theory that explains the conditions that have to be met.
        • There must be a good reason.
        • All other options have been attempted.
        • Must be started by a proper authority.
        • Must have a reasonable chance of success
        • Any harm done while fighting cannot outweigh harm done by not going to war
      • There are also conditions for a just war
        • War should discriminate between combatants and civilians
        • The military advantage gained by an attack must outweigh any harm done to civilians.
    • People who fight in Holy wars believe they're supported by God
      • A holy war is one where people believe God is on their side.
      • In the past Holy wars have been fought over territory or to convert people
      • Religion has been a factor in modern wars too.
      • Atheists and humanists have criticised religion for causing conflict and wouldn't support a war over religion.


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