PE Theory Y11 (Skeleton and Muscles)

Skeleton and muscle during exercise

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  • Shape and support
    • Skeleton and body
      • Mineral storage
      • Protection
        • The ribs protect the heart and the lungs, for example.
      • Movement
        • Abduction- Away from centre of body
        • Adduction- Towards the centre of the body
      • Blood Production
      • Axial parts of the skeleton:
        • Skull, vertebral column, sternum.
      • Appendicular parts of the skeleton:
        • Arms, legs, shoulder, collar bone, pelvis.
      • What is bending?
        • Flexion
      • What is straightening of the joints?
        • Extension
      • Osteoarthritis
        • Cartilage has broken down, forcing bone to bone contact (friction)
      • Muscle movement
        • Needs a contraction and relaxion
        • Tendons connect muscle to bone
          • They create tension by pulling bone to contract the muscle
          • Can cause strain, strain, inflammation, tendonitis etc.
            • Rest and ice
        • Overload in the muscle leads to lactic acid
        • Cartilage prevents friction of bones
      • Long term effects of exercise on body:
        • Better blood supply
          • More oxygen so get tired less easily
        • Tones muscles up
      • Short term effects of exercise on the body:
        • Breathing rate increases
        • Cardiac output increases (blood pumped out a min)
          • Q = SV * HR
        • Stroke volume increases (amount of blood pumped out of heart in 1 heart beat
        • Sweat and water loss
  • Hinge Joint e.g Elbow and Knee joint
    • Skeleton and body
      • Mineral storage
      • Protection
        • The ribs protect the heart and the lungs, for example.
      • Movement
        • Abduction- Away from centre of body
        • Adduction- Towards the centre of the body
      • Blood Production
      • Axial parts of the skeleton:
        • Skull, vertebral column, sternum.
      • Appendicular parts of the skeleton:
        • Arms, legs, shoulder, collar bone, pelvis.
      • What is bending?
        • Flexion
      • What is straightening of the joints?
        • Extension
      • Osteoarthritis
        • Cartilage has broken down, forcing bone to bone contact (friction)
      • Muscle movement
        • Needs a contraction and relaxion
        • Tendons connect muscle to bone
          • They create tension by pulling bone to contract the muscle
          • Can cause strain, strain, inflammation, tendonitis etc.
            • Rest and ice
        • Overload in the muscle leads to lactic acid
        • Cartilage prevents friction of bones
      • Long term effects of exercise on body:
        • Better blood supply
          • More oxygen so get tired less easily
        • Tones muscles up
      • Short term effects of exercise on the body:
        • Breathing rate increases
        • Cardiac output increases (blood pumped out a min)
          • Q = SV * HR
        • Stroke volume increases (amount of blood pumped out of heart in 1 heart beat
        • Sweat and water loss
  • Ball and Socket Joint e.g shoulder and hip joint
    • Range of mobility, not limited
  • Can only move up and down, cannot rotate
    • Hinge Joint e.g Elbow and Knee joint
    • Mainly calcium and phosphorus- strong bones
      • Bone marrow produces red/white blood cells for oxygen/mineral transportations e.g Femur
        • Contract: shortens and fattens
          • Relax: Longer and thinner
            • They work in antagonistic pairs
              • Helper muscle is called SYNERGIST
            • The one that works (short and fat) is the prime mover/agonist
              • They work in antagonistic pairs
                • Helper muscle is called SYNERGIST
            • The one that doesn't work is called the antagonist
              • ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
                • Muscles get bigger because they tear and repair
                  • Injure yourself through too much training
                • Ligaments attach bone to bone

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