patterns of youth culture

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  • patterns in youth culture
    • what is the relationship between youth & ethnicity
      • the sense of belonging to a social group with a common heritage or cultural tradition
        • e.g black minority ethnic groups (BME groups)
      • albert cohen
        • ETHNIC gang and youth cultures were formed by young males who lacked social status - black subcultures are formed
          • black ethnic groups lacked status as they couldn't access it due to factors such as a low income
            • join these groups to gain status (provides a means)
        • functionalist
        • can be applied to ethnicity but functionalist did not actually study the BME groups so may be irrelevant
      • phil cohen
        • black minority ETHNIC groups were victims of violence from white nationalist skinheads
          • ethnicity in youth culture caused violence
        • marxist
        • does not justify the skinheads racist behaviour
      • hall et all
        • neo-marxist
        • ethnicity divides young black males from mainstream population
          • Ethnic youth subcultures are formed in order to maintain capitalism
            • ruling classes want to divide working classes in order to make them less of a threat to capitalism they did this by encouraging racism and alternating black youths
      • gillborn + wright
        • the relationship between ethnicity and anti-school youth subcultures
          • black boys are treated more harshly by teachers who negatively label them as trouble makers
            • they formed subcultures which led to more conflict (anti-social subcultures)
        • interactionist
        • fails to explain why people respond to labels in different ways
      • ethnicity no longer effects youth?
        • post-modernists would agree
          • luke and luke  would argue youth is constructed not given and would reject specific ethnic groups   form subcultures today CULTURAL HYBRIDITY (pick n' mix) not divided
            • cultural hybridity meaning we take aspects of other cultures and add them to ours for example you see white males with dreadlocks which originates from a Jamaican background
          • Katz and long would argue youth is not correlated with ethnicity but instead is affected by youths wanting to achieve a certain identity globalised by the media
        • functionalist would agree
          • Eisenstadt would argue youth culture is not divided but instead collective as youths go through similar stresses and we form peer groups to cope ethnicity does not come into this its about our experiences in youth
          • parsons would argue youth culture is not divided but collective and united  as youth culture helped to reaffirm values from one generation to the next and we must be collective in order to achieve that and avoid anomie
    • what is the relationship between youth & nationality
      • a sense of belonging to a particular state/country/nation
      • Nayyar
        • nationalist youth subcultures develop in areas where white youths see britishness as a threat (poorer states with mainly non-white minority groups)
          • this is because they feel their communities are under threat and become territorial - othering occurs (building identities based on what we are not)
        • not all nationalism involves othering - many welsh youth cultures are inclusive of migrants so long as they make an effort to speak their language
      • modood
        • nationalist youth subcultures develop because young working class white youths are targeted by racist political groups looking for new recruits
          • these political groups leads these white working class youths to think they are victims of poverty and deprivation when in reality Pakistani/Bangladeshi origins are being paid 2 thirds less than white males
        • this theory is clearly relevant as political parties such as UKIP have contributed to the young British nationalist party who do blame BME groups as the cause of 'poverty'
      • e.g. Scottish nationalists , welsh nationalist, English nationalists
      • in a 35 marker you could use the same counter argument as you would for ethnicity
    • what is the relationship between social class & youth
      • describes the occuptationalbackground of someone and is often linked to income
      • cloward and ohlins
        • class divides youth: research demonstrated how living in poorer neighbourhoods could present little opportunities for young people to participate in the mainstream society. leading to some working class youths to turn to joining gangs or drugs to provide a means
      • phil cohen
        • described a new wave of gangs that are symbolic in style and formed to exaggerate working class values E.G skinheads
          • dressed in a distinctive style of manual workers clothing stressed violence + territorial
      • albert cohen
        • explains working class males would become frustrated of being of a low class (status frustration) with less importance and to deal with this would join gangs and delinquent subcultures in order to provide a means
      • social class no longer effects youth?
        • post modernists would agree
        • functionalists would agree
          • Eisenstadt disagrees youth is in any way divided and youths face collective stresses and similar experiences of youth
        • feminists would agree and state they are more a significant divide
          • mcrobbie and garber would argue that gender divides youth more than class- bedroom culture proves this as girls had more social parental control than boys and were seen as weaker so stayed in their bedrooms with other girls and read magazines + talk about boys
    • what is the relationship between gender & youth culture
      • social and cultural differences of being male or female
      • mcrobbie and garber
        • gender influenced youth in the way as the female gender is seen as weaker than males meaning parents enforced stronger social control on them meaning the girls participated in bedroom culture while the boys went out making youth cultures male dominated
        • theory could be viewed as out of date - girls have access to mobile phones etc
          • archers theory supports this (girls in gangs ) joining gangs actually gave girls a sense of empowerment
      • albert cohen
        • explained males were more likely to fail in school leading to status frustration in young working class males to solve this they going subcultures and gangs to provide a means and gain status and appreciation
      • in a 35 marker you can use the same counter argument as you did in ethnicity just apply to gender

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