Patterns of human rights violations are influenced by a range of factors

  • Created by: EmilyM17
  • Created on: 02-06-19 19:05
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  • Patterns of human rights violations are influenced by a range of factors
    • Current Spatial Patterns of Human Rights Issues
      • Forced Labour
        • Situations in which persons are coerced to work through the use of violence or intimidation, or by more subtle means such as accumulation of debt, retention of identity papers or threats of denunciation to immigration authorities
        • Estimated 21 million people are victims of forced labour
        • Includes:
          • Children who are denied education because they are forced to work
          • Men unable to leave work because of debts owed to recruitment agents
          • Women and girls exploited as unpaid, abused domestic workers
        • Factors that contribute to vulnerability to forced labour:
          • Economic
            • Poverty
            • Lack of economic opportunities and unemployment
            • Low wages
            • Subsistence farming
            • Migration and seeking work
          • Political
            • Political stability
            • Conflict
            • Breakdown of rule of law
            • State sponsorship of modern slavery e.g. cotton harvest in Uzbekistan
            • High levels of discrimination and prejuduce
          • Social
            • Gender inequality
            • Age (especially children)
            • Entire families enslaved through bonded labour e.g. construction, agriculture, brick, making, garment factories in India and Pakistan
            • Women and Children trafficking for sexual exploitation. e.g. through organised crime in Europe from Nigeria
          • Environmental
            • Escaping climate-related disasters including food and water shortages
            • Hazardous working conditions in open mines
      • Maternal mortality rate (MMR)
        • The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy...from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or management. MMR is number of deaths per 100,000 live births
        • 2013= 289,000 deaths globally following pregnancy- most occurred in developing countries
        • Factors that influence global variations in MMR
          • Access to treatments for pregnancy and birth complications, especially emergency care
          • Quality of medical services, especially provision of skilled attendance of birth
          • Level of political commitment and government investment
          • Availability of information and education
          • cultural barriers and which affect discrimination
          • Poverty
        • These rights are legally protected by international human rights treaties including:
          • Covention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
          • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
          • various regional treaties and the laws of many individual states
      • Capital punishment
        • Death penalty is the denial of the most basic of human rights- the right to life.
        • Factors that influence global variations of capital punishment:
          • Differences between countries in the range and type of crimes for which it is imposed
          • the incidence of its legality under national law
          • the increase in the number of countries in which it is being abolished
          • its reinstated in some countries for threats to state security and public safety posed by terrorism
          • the number of communications and pardons (granted in 28 countries in 2014)

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