patterns and trends in crime

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  • Patterns and trends in offending and victimisation
    • SOCIAL CLASS- offending:
      • A typical UK prisoner will be under 30, working class, and male.
      • Sutherland: lower socio-economic classes
    • GENDER- offending:
      • Males commit 80% of all crime
      • Women are more likely to turn to crime when they are on benefits, in the rest of the population more men are on benefits
      • Rates of offending  have fallen for both genders, faster for females
      • Females are treated more leniently, chivalry thesis
      • Females have a lower crime rate in all areas apart from prostitution
      • Peak age for offending women is 15, falls off during teenage years, for men it is 18 and doesn't fall until their 20s.
      • Feminists argue that women turn to crime when the disadvantages in their life outweigh the advantages
    • GENDER- victimisation
      • Higher proportion of men are victims of violence, by strangers
      • Women 7X more likely to report being a victim of sexual assult
      • Males account for 7/10 homicide victims
      • In 2003, over half of female homicide victims were killed by a husband or partner
        • 2 women every week are killed by a husband or partner
      • Hanmer and Saunders: unstructured interviews with women on the street, 20% of women who had been victims of sexual assault did not report it.
      • Walklate: considered why women stay in abusive relationships, lack of confidence, financial independence, unable to leave, no where to go which was made worse if there were children, self blame.
    • AGE- offending:
      • Young people are more likely to offend/commit crime
      • Girls under 16 are more likely to shoplift and fight
      • In 2009-10, 20% of all police recorded crime was committed by males ages 10-17, 4% females
      • McVie: data is grouped in age-bands which may mask more precise trends. Home Office groups everyone over 21 together, making comparisons difficult
      • Soothill et al: peak age for burglaries is 16 or less, drug offences 21-25 then decline.
      • Youth crime is more visible and thus may appear in statistics more, adult crime is more likely to go undetected.
    • AGE- victimisation
      • Older people are more likely to fear crime, but younger people are more likely to be victims of it.
        • When assault occurs, older people are more likely to be injured and take time off work, the attack is likely to have a greater effect on their lives.
      • CSEW 2014, 12% of children had been victims of crime, 56% were violent.
    • ETHNICITY- offending:
      • The majority of people in prison are white, around 70%, followed by Afro-Carribean, 15%
      • Blacks are stopped and searched 7X more than whites.2009-10
        • Blacks are arrested 3X more than whites, 2010
      • In 2013, black people made up 3% of the population but 14% of all stop and searches. Asians made up 6% of the population, 10% of all stop and searches
      • White overall arrests have decreased since 2010, arrests for blacks and Asians has increased
      • Bowling and Phillips: police charge black people on inadequate evidence. Immigration has increased, crime has decreased.
    • ETHNICITY- victimisation
      • Ethnic minorities are more at risk of being victims of personal crimes.
      • Racial and religious offences decreased from 2005.
      • Home Office suggests black people are 5X more likely to be murdered
      • 1/3 gun murder victims and offenders are black.

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