Pathogens 3.1.1

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  • Pathogens
    • A disease causing microbe
      • Bacteria
      • Viruses
      • Fungi
    • When invaded by a pathogen that organism becomes a host
      • Cholera is contracted by drinking water contaminated with faeces containing vibrio cholerae
    • When a pathogen duplicates it is called cloning
    • Recognisable symptoms =  a disease
    • Transmission is when a pathogen passes from one organelle to another
    • An epidemic is a wide spread disease
    • A pandemic is a globally spread disease
    • The body has 4 main interfaces
      • The skin
      • The digestive system
      • The gas exchange system
      • The reproductive and urinary system
    • The pathogens penetrate the interface between the environment and host
    • the body has natural non-specific defence mechanisms
      • Waterproof skin
      • SAlty tears
      • thick mucus
      • Ear wax
      • Stomach acid
    • If pathogens enter our body, our immune system has ways to prevent damage
      • Antibodies
      • Antitoxins
      • White blood cells
    • Pathogens have 2 ways of damaging the body
      • Create toxins
        • Usually bacteria as the are larger and cannot enter cells
      • Damage cells and tissues of host
        • Usually viruses as they are smaller and can get into cells


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