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  • Created by: Jasmin
  • Created on: 02-11-13 16:34
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  • Pathogens
    • A microorganism that causes disease
      • Viruses
        • HIV --> AIDS  --> immune system gradually fails
        • Influenza Virus --> causes the flu
        • Rhinovirus --> cause the common cold
      • Bacteria
        • E.Coli --> intestines, completely harmless, some strands cause food poisoning
        • Vibrio Cholera --> causes cholera--> severe diarrheoa
        • Mycobacterium tuberculosis --> lung disease (TB)
      • Fungi
        • Trichophyton rubrum --> athletes foot
    • Entry into the body
      • Gas exchange system
        • Breathe in air containing pathogens
          • Trapped in mucus lining the lung epithelium (outer layer of cells)
            • These cells have cilia that beat and move the mucus up the trachea to the mouth where it is removed
              • But some pathogens still able to reach the alveoli where they can invade cells and cause damage
      • The skin
        • Cut in the skin, pathogens enter bloodstream
          • Blood clots and dries leaving a scab to prevent pathogens entering
      • The digestive system
        • Eat/drink food that contains pathogens, most killed by acidic conditions in the stomach
          • But some may survive and pass into the intestines where they invade cells of the gut wall and cause disease
      • Interface: a surface or boundary linking 2 systems - linking the external environment with the internal environment of the body
    • How pathogens cause disease
      • Production of toxins
      • Cell damage
        • Break down the membranes of the host cells
          • Rupture the cells to release nutrients inside them
            • Breaking down the nutrients inside the cell for their own use
              • This starves and eventually kills the cell
                • Replicating inside the cells and bursting them when they are released
    • Disease: a malfunction of the body or mind which has an adverse effect on good health. It has mental, physical and social aspects


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