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  • Pathogens
    • Bacteria
      • Living cells
      • Microscopic
      • Rapidly reproduce if in favorable conditions
      • Release Toxins and Poisons into the body
      • Bigger than Viruses
    • Virus
      • Microscopic
      • Nonliving
      • Require a host cell to reproduce
        • Host cell bursts after the virus makes lots of copies of itself
          • Travel around the body through the bloodstream and airways
      • Smaller than bacteria
    • White Blood cells
      • Ingest and Destroy pathogens
      • Produce antibodies to destroy pathogens
      • Produce antitoxins to neutralize poisons and toxins
    • Important to Remember
      • Pathogens are not the disease but they cause it
      • White blood cells don't eat the pathogens but they ingest them
      • Antibodies and antitoxins are not living things- they are specialized protein
    • Vaccination
      • Put a dead or a small amount of an injured pathogen into the body
        • Cause white blood cells to create antibodies and anti toxins against the disease
          • If you do then get infected by the pathogen again then your body will  be prepared for it
    • Antibiotics
      • One simple way to reduce the risk of infection is to maintain personal hygiene and to keep hospitals clean. In the 19th century, Ignaz Semmelweis realised the importance of cleanliness in hospitals. However, although his ideas were successful, they were ignored at the time because people did not know that diseases were caused by pathogens that could be killed.


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