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  • Pathogens
    • Pathogens include BACTERIA, FUNGI, and VIRUSES
    • Microorganisms must:
      • 1. gain entry to the host
      • 2. colonise the tissue of the host
      • 3. resist the defences of the host
      • 4. cause damage to the host tissues
    • if a pathogen gets into the host it causes an infection
      • disease occurs when the infection leads to recognisable  symptoms
    • Transmission: pathogen being transferred from one to another
    • Entering the body
      • pathogens penetrate the organisms interfaces
        • interfaces include the SKIN, GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEMS and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
        • Mouth and nose
        • covered in a mucus layer that is difficult to penetrate
        • Food and water may carry pathogens
        • produces enzymes to break down pathogens
        • produces stomach acid to kill microorganisms
    • Causes
      • damaging host tissues
        • prevents tissues from functioning properly
        • break down the membranes of the cells
      • producing toxins
        • produce toxins which affect the host cell


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