Pathogens

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  • Pathogens
    • Bacteria
      • prokaryotic
      • treated by antibiotics
    • Viruses
      • non-living infectious agents
      • attach to host cell
        • insert viral nucleic acid
          • viral nucleic acid replicates
            • viral protein synthesised
              • lysis of host cell
      • Examples
        • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
          • damages leaves, flowers and fruit of tobacco plants
        • Influenza
          • kills ciliated epithelial cells in gas exchange system
            • leaves airways open to secondary infection
        • HIV/AIDS
          • When active, HIV destroys T Helper cells
            • immune system fails
              • opportunistic infections
          • HIV contains reverse transcriptase
            • makes DNA version of virus in host cell
              • host cell uses this DNA to code for and make new viruses
    • Fungi
      • eukaryotic
      • treated by antifungals
      • reproduce by sending out hyphae which release spores
      • Examples
        • Black sigatoka
          • caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis
          • hyphae digest plant cells, turning the leaves black
        • Ringworm
          • caused by Trichophyton verrucosum
          • causes grey crusty, infectious circular areas of skin
        • Athlete's foot
          • caused by Trichophyton verrucosum
          • digests skin between the toes
            • causing cracking and scaling
    • Protoctista
      • eukaryotic
      • unicellular
      • Examples
        • potato blight
          • caused by Phytophthora infstans
          • destroys leaves, tubers and fruit
        • Malaria
          • caused by Plasmodium
            • spread by bites of Anopheles (female mosquito)
          • anopheles takes two blood meals
            • Plasmodium reproduces inside anopheles
          • no vaccine, limited cures
            • can control the vector

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