Particles and Radiation

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  • Particles and Radiaton
    • Constituents of the atom
      • Proton: Relative- Charge= +1 Mass= 1 Actual: Charge= 1.6x10^-19 Mass= 1.67x10^-27
      • Electron: Relative- Charge= -1 Mass= 0.0005 Actual- Charge= -1.6x10^-19C Mass= 9.11x10^-31
      • Key Facts:      - An atom has a diameter of ~1x10^-10m   -The proton and neuton are 2000x the size of the electron         -Most of an atom is empty space
    • Strong Nuclear Force
      • The primary force holding together the constituents of the atom- it stops the nucleus from disentigratiing
      • It holds the protons and neutrons together
      • Overcomes the electrostatic force between the protons in the nucleus
      • Has a range of 3-4 femtometres (x10^-15) and it only has an attractive force down to o.5fm (below this distance it acts as a repulsive force to prevent protons and neutrons being pushed into eachother
    • Radioactive Decay
      • Alpha Decay:  Nucleon number decreases by 4 and Atomic number decreases by 2 and an alpha particle is emitted
      • Beta Radiation:    A neutron changes to a proton. The nucleon number increases by 1. An anti neutron is emitted.
      • Gamma Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation emitted by and unstable nucleus. Can pass through thick metals. Emitted by a nucleus with too much energy after an alpha or beta emission.
    • Particles and Antiparticles
      • Particle  annihilation: A particle and it's corresponding antiparticle collide. Momentum and energy must be conserved and because the two particles have opposite quantum numbers, their mass gets converted into photons
      • Pair production:     Opposite of Particle annihilation. A photon with sufficient energy suddenly changes into a particle and its antiparticle.
    • Particle interactions
      • Weak nuclear force:    Responsible for radioactive decay. For example it causes a proton to change into a neutron
      • Electron Capture: a proton rich nuclide absorbs and inner atomic electron, changing a proton to a neutron
        • Primary decay for istopes
        • Occurs when a nucleus does not have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission
        • An X-ray photon is also emitted because the nucleus is in an excited state until the electron is replaced by an outer electron
    • Classificaton of particles
      • Leptons
        • Fubdamental particles
        • Interact using weak force but if charged will interact via gravitational and electronmagnetic
        • Electrons, Muons and Taus
          • Muons and Taus are very unstable and eventually decay into electrons
        • Each lepton has a neutrino. These have almost zero mass and zero charge
        • Antileptons: each lepton and neutrino has an antiparticle with opposite charge
        • Lepton Number: Each lepton is given a lepton number +1 and antileptons -1
      • Hadrons
        • Strong Nuclear Force
        • Made up of quarks (not fundamental particles)
        • Baryons
          • Neutrons + Protons (baryon no. = 1)
          • All unstable with the exception of the proton and anti
          • Antiprotons and antineutrons are antibaryons (baryon no. = -1)
          • Baryon number must be conserved
        • Mesons
          • All are unstable
          • Pions
            • Lighter than Kaons
            • More stable than Kaons
          • Kaons
            • Heavier than pions
            • Less stable than pions
          • interact with Baryons via strong nuclear force
    • Quarks
      • Up, Down and strange
      • Fundamental particles that make up baryons
  • Neutron: Relative- Charge= 0 Mass= 1 Actual- Charge= 0 Mass= 1.67x10^-27
    • Constituents of the atom
      • Proton: Relative- Charge= +1 Mass= 1 Actual: Charge= 1.6x10^-19 Mass= 1.67x10^-27
      • Electron: Relative- Charge= -1 Mass= 0.0005 Actual- Charge= -1.6x10^-19C Mass= 9.11x10^-31
      • Key Facts:      - An atom has a diameter of ~1x10^-10m   -The proton and neuton are 2000x the size of the electron         -Most of an atom is empty space
  • Electron Capture: a proton rich nuclide absorbs and inner atomic electron, changing a proton to a neutron
    • Primary decay for istopes
    • Occurs when a nucleus does not have sufficient energy to decay by positron emission
    • An X-ray photon is also emitted because the nucleus is in an excited state until the electron is replaced by an outer electron

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