Particle Theory

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  • 3 STATES OF MATTER: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS
    • Atoms - Lesson 2 - Particles
      • STATE SYMBOLS
        • SYMBOL EQUATIONS can also include STATE SYMBOLS, tells you what PHYSICAL STATE the reactants and products are in
          • (S) SOLID (L) LIQUID (G) GAS (AQ) AQUEOUS (DISSOLVED IN WATER)
      • CHANGING STATE
        • SOLID TURNS TO LIQUID BY MELTING
          • LIQUID TURNS TO GAS BY BOILING
            • GAS TURNS TO LIQUID BY CONDENSING
              • LIQUID TURNS TO SOLID BY FREEZING
                • SOLID TO GAS THE PARTICLES ARE HEATED, GAS TO SOLID THE PARTICLES COOL DOWN.
                  • CHANGING STATE
                    • SOLID TURNS TO LIQUID BY MELTING
                      • LIQUID TURNS TO GAS BY BOILING
                        • GAS TURNS TO LIQUID BY CONDENSING
                          • LIQUID TURNS TO SOLID BY FREEZING
                            • SOLID TO GAS THE PARTICLES ARE HEATED, GAS TO SOLID THE PARTICLES COOL DOWN.
                      • PREDICTING the STATE of a substance
                        • If temp is BELOW the MELTING POINT of substance, it's solid. If ABOVE the BOILING POINT it's a gas and if IN BETWEEN it's a liquid.
          • PREDICTING the STATE of a substance
            • If temp is BELOW the MELTING POINT of substance, it's solid. If ABOVE the BOILING POINT it's a gas and if IN BETWEEN it's a liquid.
      • Which state at a certain temperature depends on how STRONG the forces of attraction are between the particles of a material
        • The strength of the force depends on the MATERIAL, tr TEMPERATURE, and the PRESSURE.
      • PARTICLE THEORY tells us how each state behaves.
        • SOLIDS
          • STRONG FORCES of attraction - CLOSE TOGETHER - REGULAR ARRANGEMENT
          • DON'T MOVE, DEFINITE SHAPE and VOLUME
          • VIBRATE, HOTTER it is the MORE they vibrate, causing them to EXPAND when heated.
        • LIQUIDS
          • WEAK FORCE of attraction. FREE to MOVE past each other. STICK CLOSELY TOGETHER.
          • Definite volume but NO DEFINITE SHAPE, FLOWS.
          • RANDOM MOTION, HOTTER it gets the FASTER they move. EXPANDS when heated.
        • GASES
          • VERY WEAK forces of attraction - FREE to MOVE and are FAR APART. Travel in STRAIGHT LINES.
          • DON'T keep a definite SHAPE or VOLUME and always FILLS any container.
          • RANDOM MOTION. HOTTER the gas is the FASTER it moves. When heated they either EXPAND or their PRESSURE INCRASES
        • DOESN'T tell us how strong the forces are and represents the particles by solid inelastic spheres.

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