Social factors on participation

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  • Participation
    • Age
      • Con long performed better aoung older voyers than Lab. Acquire more responsibilites e.g. mortage
        • Lab young until drop  in support of the war Iraq 7%- 18-24 8% 25-34 10% 35-44 , 31% 65+    Lib Dems increased  with the young 30% 18-24, 25-44 29%, 35-44 26, 65+ 44% Con 31% 18-24, 35% 25-34, 34% 35-44, 44% 65+
    • Social class
      • Strong link - people voted 'natural class party: best represents interests of social group
        • Labour - working. Non working Cons. Exceptions working class largest group - Cons in power with support sizeable from working class
          • Partisanship - Voters stable + attachment. Party identification developed socialisation, school, home, parents, workplace, neighbourhood
    • Ethnicity
      • Majority ethnic groups - Labour
        • Voters not homogeneous groups- Indian origins -22% cons 2010, Black Africans 6%. Social factor more likely manual workers.
          • Sharp fall in 2005 - Iraq war with muslim pop. Regained in 2010 general election. Number ethnic voters, grow their -perceptions of cons become more problematic
    • Gender
      • Post war period- 'gender gap' - women = conservatives more than men. Reflect social attitudes women less work.
        • 1990 - Labour gained significant women voters, little difference in men and women vote. young more likely Labour. - policies welfare attractive. women rely state benefits more. Increase number of women MPs - all women shortlist in safe seat constituencies
    • Region
      • North - South divide- Cons Southern England, the suburbs and rural areas ( Land owners). Labour North, scotland and wales ( manual workers)
        • 2010- Cons-Labour London, Midlands,Northwest , Yorkshire.  Lib-Cons southwest, Lib-Lab NOrth. Nationalist party scotland 2nd. N.Ireland distinctive party system and voting pattern
    • Class 1970s
      • Class dealignment- link weakened few vote for their class. Eroded by greater affluence, improved access to higher education, changes to Labor market. Manual workers shrunk. New working class - private sector better qualifications, owning homes - 1980s
      • Partisn dealignment- voters strongly identify has declined. 1964, 43% voters supporters main parties, 2005 only 13% were. Core voters vote same party again and again. Floating voters change party at elections. Also in party membership decline. 90% 19502 eith Lab/ Cons, were now 65% did in 2010

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