Part three: Failure of Détente and the collapse of Communism (1970-91)

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  • Created by: Nayeema-A
  • Created on: 14-03-14 08:54
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  • Part three: Failure of Détente and the collapse of Communism (1970-91)
    • Key Issue 1: Why did Détente collapse in the 1970's and 80's?
      • Afghanistan
        • Since the 50's the USSR had helped to modernise the country by building roads and pipelines for oil but not modernising too much as not to offend the citizens
          • The Afghani people were very traditional and most were strict Muslims
            • A civil war broke out due to reforms that went against the culture and traditions of the Afghan people
              • They didn't like the new laws especially on how land was to be distributed and laws on marriage.
          • Advantages for the USSR
            • The USSR got Oil and support from the Middle East
            • Afghanistan had a lot of trade routes to the rest of the middle east and was close to the Arabian Sea with good trade with the West
              • The USSR got Oil and support from the Middle East
          • In 1973 the monarchy was over thrown and was soon replaced by a soviet backed government by 1978
            • Advantages for the USSR
              • Afghanistan had a lot of trade routes to the rest of the middle east and was close to the Arabian Sea with good trade with the West
            • A civil war broke out due to reforms that went against the culture and traditions of the Afghan people
              • They didn't like the new laws especially on how land was to be distributed and laws on marriage.
          • WHY DID THE USSR INVADE?
            • The USSR was afraid the President Amin of Afghanistan was becoming too friendly with the West.
              • Evidence is when he sought support from the USA, China and Pakistan.
                • Also since he had taken control, he had slowly been eliminating opponents within the party, many of whom were Soviet supporters
              • The Soviet Sphere of influence
                • Preservation of the communist government which had appealed to the USSR for help
                • A revolt in Iran had overthrown pro- American ruler and set us a Muslim Govt. This could spread to Afghanistan
          • President Carter's response
            • Threatened the Soviets would pay the consequences for their actions
              • In 1980, the general council of the UN voted 104 to 18 in favour of a resolution condemning the invasion
            • Boycotted the Olympics
              • Only 81 countries took part. Lowest since 1956
            • Asked congress not to ratify the SALT II agreement
              • Limiting the arms and weapons
                • USSR gets the Moral high ground as a result
            • Condemned the invasion as an act of interference and a threat to World Peace
            • Introduced the Carter Doctrine - sending troops to protect oil routes
          • The Mujahedeen
            • Muslim rebels who were fighting a "holy war"
            • They fought in the open and were used to the mountains and so knew where to hide
        • Reagan and the renewal of the Cold War
          • Reagan was know to hate communism and promised to take a hard-line approach
          • Condemned communism as "evil and gave a speech on the "evil empire"
          • He took big steps to threaten the USSR and protect the USA
            • Increase in military spending
              • $325 Billion in 1980 to $456 billion in 1987.
            • Restarted and invested funds in bombs and weapons
        • Solidarity in Poland
      • Key Issue 2: Why Did Communism collapse in Central and Eastern Europe?
    • The mujahedeen were being financed by the USA and rich Saudi's like Osama Bin Laden.
      • They launched a holy war

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