Pare & Ligatures

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  • Pare & the impact of war on medicine
    • Prior to Pare
      • Surgeons has issues with dealing with infection, bleeding & pain
        • Increased the chance of infection
          • Equipment wasn't sterilised
      • Able to provide the patients with surgical  speed
        • Slightly reduce the chances of patients dying of shock or blood loss
      • Doctors mainly performed more simple surgeries
        • Broken limbs & wounds
        • Would sometimes carry out something that is deemed more risky
          • Removing kidney stones
            • successfully performed on Samuel Pepys
      • 16th century brought new forms of surgery
        • gunshot wounds
          • Doctors had no experience
    • Experience
      • 1536 onwards Pare was gaining vital experience
      • "there are five dutie3s of surgery: to remove what is superfluous, to restore what has been dislocated, to separate what has grown together, to reunite what has been divided and to redress the defects of nature
      • Apprentice this brother
        • Was becoming a surgeon in Paris
      • ran out of boiling oil (Siege of Turin), made his own ointment
        • egg, rose oil, turpentine
        • initily believed the ointment wouldn't work
          • noticed how the patients who had the ointment wee in significant less pain
            • Published his findings
    • 1552 Ligatures
      • threads of silk were tied around the open arteries to stop bleed after amputation
        • Initially introduced by Hippocrates  & Galen
        • Previously wound would be sealed with a hot iron
          • patients would usually die from shock
        • an instrument called a "crows beak" would be used to secure before ligature fixed into place
        • Patients still died from infection


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