Paper 1 - Development Dynamics

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 21-04-19 13:46
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  • Causes of Global Inequalities
    • Climate
      • A poor climate (really hot or really cold or really dry) means that not much will grow - this reduces the amount of food produced, which leads to malnutrition and a low quality of life
        • There will also be fewer crops to sell, so less money to spend on goods and services - this also reduces quality of life
    • Education
      • Produces a more skilled workforce, meaning that the country can produce more goods and offer more services
        • This can bring money into the country through trade or investment
      • Educated people earn more, so they pay more taxes, which provides money that the country can spend on development
    • Health
      • Lack of clean water and poor health care means that many people suffer from diseases such as malaria and colers
      • Ill people can't work so they don't contribute to the economy and they may also need expensive medicine or health care
      • Lack of economic contribution and increased spending on health care means that there is less money available to spend on development
    • Colonialism
      • Colonised - ruled by a foreign country
      • Countries that were colonised are often at a lower level of development when they gain independence than they would be if they had not been colonised
      • European countries colonised a lot of Africa in the 19th century - they controlled the economies of their colonies, removed raw materials and slaves, and sold back expensive manufactured goods
        • This was bad for African development as many countries became dependentEurope. This led to famine and malnutrition
    • Economic and Political
      • Authoritarian governments tell people what to do
      • Democratic governments are chosen by the people
      • Corrupt governments can hinder development e.g. by taking money that's intended for building new infrastructure or improving facilities for people
      • Countries with good international relations are more likely to get good trade agreements - they can also get loans from international organisations to invest in development projects
      • Authoritarian governments can put development policies in place without worrying about anyone stopping them
        • This can be very good for economic development e.g. rapid growth of China. Things can go wrong though e.g. Cuba's economic crash
      • Development under democratic governments is usually less extreme - different interest groups prevent either huge growth or economic collapse
    • Topography
      • Steep land means that food production decreases
        • Decreased food production leads to malnutrition and a low quality of life
      • Steep land also makes it hard to develop infrastructure, which then limits trade and makes it hard to provide basic services
    • Neo-colonialism
      • After colonies gained their independence, richer countries continued to control them directly
        • TNCs exploit cheap labour and raw materials from poorer countries
      • International organisations sometimes offer conditional loans, which means poorer countries have to develop in the ways that their donor wants them to

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