P&D 2

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 06-05-15 19:00
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  • P&D 2
    • Expressing P: Social Environment: P restrained by beliefs, values & norms, expressed when justifications release -Individual Motivation: externally motivated by actively working to reduce detectable prejudice, internal motivation tends to be free of prejudice
    • Processing of STs - Fazio et al (1995): negative words more quickly assigned when black face seen briefly -Correll (2002): less likely to shoot white man by accident in computer game
    • Implicit Attitude testing: -Press keys associating +/- terms to group on screen, RTs quicker when in line with out attitudes
    • St Maintenace - Failure of logic: logic doesnt undo prejudced attitudes, info organised around prejudiced scheme, recall & rehearse reinforcing info more often -Attributions: Fundamental attribution error - make dispositional attributions, ignore situational causes, applt to whole outer group
      • ST Threat: Mathematical ability - Women who told tests measure gender diffs perform worse than when told it doesn't measure diffs
    • Blaming the target: expect outer group to confirm to higher standards of behaviour, belief in a just world
      • Clark & Clark (1947): Black children choose to play with white dolls as they see them as superior - Goldburg(1968): Women rate articles higher if wrote by men -Effects of P on self esteem: reject similar, rate self as lower than other groups
        • Managing Target Status: (1)Behave in conformity with ST (2) Compensate behaviour opposite way (3) Alter out group composition (4)Disassociate self from group (5) Emphasise difference: -rejection equality -Radical political identification
    • Minorites who acknowlege & are aare of prejudice against them adapt better to environment -Minorities divert discrimination to other minorities -Blacks who attribute rejection to D are perceived by others as trouble makers
    • Causes of P&D -Realistic conflict theory: -resources are limited, out-groups are greater threat, increased inter group conflict, more prejudice -Scapegoating: blaming outergroup is easier -Dehumanising outgroups: representing others as less then human removes them from protection that normally apply
    • Social Identity Theory - Tajfel(1970): Self image & esteem depend on groups, see our groups as distinctive & superior, In group share a common goal, territory, interaction
    • Reducing P Allport Contact Hypothesis (1954): P will decrease when (1) both groups are of equal status (2) both share a common gial -Sherriff et al (1961): P lowered when there was mutual independence, a common goal, equal status & a friendly informal setting
    • Encouraging openeness when interacting with OG = cross ethnic friendship & decreased social exclusion
      • Pettlgrew & Troop (2000) -Face to face contact: redeuces P, effects perceptions of whole OG, large effect on LGBT, low for elderly & disabled
    • Contact & Change: contact works by -reducing - attitudes to OG -increase perception of OG variability
      • Hetrosexism & Experiments -Morrison (2002): Modern homonegativity (MHS) scale correlates high with: Political conservatism, religion, modern sexism -High MHS score -> less likely to sit next to someone with pro LGBT shirt
        • Gough (2002): Male social groups assert heterosexual masculine credential to locate weaknesses in gay men
        • Use of humour:-divides groups -enables taboo statements -avoids accusations

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