GCSE history Surgery

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  • Pain
    • Search for an anaesthetic
      • Before 1800 - alcohol and opium
        • Had little success in easing pain during operations
      • 1844 - laughing gas was used
        • patients are still conscious,
        • used by dentists in USA
      • From 1846 - ether
        • made patient's unconscious for a long time
        • could make people cough during operations and sick afterwards
        • Highly flammable, transported in heavy glass bottles
      • from 1847 - chloroform
        • very effective with little side affects
        • difficult to get the dose right and could kill people because of the effect on the heart
      • from 1884 - cocain
        • used as the first local anesthetic
        • in 1905 novocain was used, this is less addictive and was used as general anasthetic
    • impact of anaesthetic
      • before anaesthetics
        • surgery was painful and people died from shock
        • surgeons went to fast to stop pain and blood loss
        • patients had to be held down which made it difficult for surgeons
        • operations were amputations or on the surface of the skin
      • after discovery of anaesthetics
        • surgery was pain free
        • surgeons could take there time, but still had the problem of blood loss
        • patents didn't struggle so it was easier for the surgeons.
        • deeper surgery became possible, this meant more infections
          • black period of surgery!!!!
  • Colour coded!


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