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  • P4- Explaining motion
    • Forces and interactions
      • Forces always arise from an interaction between two objects
      • Forces always come in pairs
      • Interaction pairs are:
        • Equal in size
        • In opposite directions
      • Two kinds of interaction:
        • Contact forces
        • Action- at- a distance (eg. Gravity)
      • Steady speed = balanced forces
    • Cars
      • Engine makes the wheels turn
      • Wheel rotates and exerts a force backwards on the ground
    • Friction
      • Between two surfaces as they slide over each other
      • Friction is caused by roughness
      • If object moves one force is more
    • Resultant force
      • Add both forces together
      • Direction must be taken into account
    • Vertical forces
      • Always in both directions
      • Still objects have a resultant force of zero
      • Gets faster as the object first falls as air resistance has a greater effect
      • Faster an object the more air resistance
    • Describing motion
      • How far they've gone is the distance
      • Displacement is the shortest route
      • Speed= distance/ time
      • Velocity has a direction
      • Acceleration is as an objects speed increases
        • Acceleration= change in speed/ time for the change to occur
      • A constant slope in a distant time graph shows a steady speed
    • Momentum
      • Momentum= Mass x Velocity
      • The greater the mass the greater the velocity
      • A vector quantity- size and direction
      • Change in momentum depends on the porce
      • Change of momentum (kg m/s)= Resultant force (N) x Time for which the force acts (s)
    • Work
      • Energy transferred
      • Work done by a force
      • Work done by a force(J)
    • Kinetic energy
      • Kinetic Energy (J)= 1/2 x Mass (kg) x velocity ([m/s]2)
      • Kinetic energy is energy of movement
      • Greater the mass the faster it is going= greater kinetic energy
    • GPE
      • Height energy
      • GPE (J)= Weight(N) x Vertical height difference (m)
      • Falling objects convert GPE into KE


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