P4 - Explaining motion

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  • P4 - Explaining motion
    • movement
      • speed
        • distance travelled in a certain time
        • The speed often changes
          • we calculate average speed.
        • Distance (m) / Time Taken (s)
          • we calculate average speed.
        • how fast something is
        • Velocity
          • speed and direction
          • can be positive and negative
      • Distant time Graph
        • Gradient = speed
        • Flat section = Stationary
        • Down hill = returning
        • steepening curve = accelarating
        • levelling off curve = decelarating
      • Velocity-Time graph
        • Gradient = acceleration
        • flat section = constant speed
        • curve  = changing acceleration
      • Acceleration
        • Change in velocity (m/s) /time take (m)
        • unbalanced force
        • thrust is stronger than drag
    • Forces
      • occur when to objects interact
      • Friction
        • 3 types of friction
          • Friction between solid surfaces which are gripping (allows you to walk)
          • Friction between solid surfaces sliding past each other
          • Resistance or drag from fluids (air resistance)
        • moving objects experience friction.
      • arrows shows the size and direction of a force.
        • steady speed has a balanced force
        • reaction of a surface has a balanced force
        • resultant force
          • overall force acting on the object
          • determines the movement
          • causes acceleration
    • Momentum (kg m/s)
      • Acceleration
        • Change in velocity (m/s) /time take (m)
        • unbalanced force
        • thrust is stronger than drag
      • Mass (kg)  x Velocity (m/s)
      • Change in Momentum (kg m/s)
        • resultant force acts on an object
        • Resultant force (N) x Time for which the force acts (s)
        • Car safety
          • crumple zones
            • increase stopping time
            • less impact on driver
            • Less shock on the nerves
          • Airbags
            • increases stopping time
          • Seat belts
            • increases stopping time
            • reduces force on the chest
          • helmets
            • padding absorbs some of the force
            • increases the time for the head to come to a stop
    • Work
      • Kinetic Energy
        • energy of movement
        • 1/2 x mass (kg) x Velocity2 (m/s2)
        • increase in kinetic energy = work done
          • energy is lost in the surrounding
            • heat
            • sound
      • work done (J) = Force (N) x Distance moved in direction of the force (m)
      • requires a supply of enery
        • food
        • fuel
        • electricity
      • when a force moves an object it does work and energy is transferred to the object
      • Gravitational potential energy
        • increasing height = increasing G.P.E
        • Change in G.P.E = weight (N) x Vertical height difference
        • Falling objects convert G.P.E into K.E
          • Kinetic Energy
            • energy of movement
            • 1/2 x mass (kg) x Velocity2 (m/s2)
            • increase in kinetic energy = work done
              • energy is lost in the surrounding
                • heat
                • sound
          • K.E gained = G.P.E lost
  • Amount of energy transferred (J) = Work Done (J)
    • Work
      • work done (J) = Force (N) x Distance moved in direction of the force (m)
      • requires a supply of enery
        • food
        • fuel
        • electricity
      • when a force moves an object it does work and energy is transferred to the object
      • Gravitational potential energy
        • increasing height = increasing G.P.E
        • Change in G.P.E = weight (N) x Vertical height difference
        • Falling objects convert G.P.E into K.E
          • K.E gained = G.P.E lost

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