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  • P5.1 a-k: Waves in Matter
    • Wave Motion
      • Frequency: The number of waves passing a fixed point per second measured in hertz
      • Amplitude: the mazimum displacement that any particle achieves from its undisturbed position im metres
      • Wavelength: The distance between one point on a wave to the point on the next wave (crest to crest)
      • Period: Time taken to complete one oscillation
      • a ripple tank is meant to observe the features of water waves.
        • shallow tray of water with vibrating bar inside of it, which is connected to a power bank. When the bar vibrates it creates waves across the surface of water
        • Above ripple tank there is a light source and below there is white paper. When the light shines it produces an image on the white paper
        • Used to measure the wavelength, frequency and speed of water waves. you can use mobile phone which can speed up and slow down and even freeze image
        • Measure with wavelengths by putting ruler on paper, then freeze image
    • Transverse waves(S): a wave in which the vibrations are perpendicular(right angle) to direction of wave e,g light waves
    • Longitudinal waves (P): a wave in which vibration is parallel to travel of wave e.g sound waves
      • Sound waves travel more easily through solids and liquids than gases
      • High pitch sounds have shorter wavelengths and deep sounds are related to lower frequency vibration
    • Hearing and waves
      • Sound waves make our ears vibrate  and the vibration is amplified by small bones in our ears. The vibration passes into liquid causing small hairs to vibrate to create electrical changes that pass to the brain.
        • High frequency limit changes with age as the tiny hair cells die and do not grow back
    • Reflection and Absorption of sound
      • Surfaces can reflect sound. Reflected sounds that are loud enough produce echoes. Soft surfaces however  absorb sound. The energy of vibration passes into the material
    • Sonar and ultrasound
      • Sonar uses reflected sounds to detect objects and measure distance. It works well under water. It uses the pulses of sound.
      • The faster the reflected sound returns to the source, the closer the reflecting object is.
      • Ultrasound is sound with frequency that is too high for humans to hear, used to scan babies. The mother's body transmits the waves and reflection to different surfaces, including surface of baby.


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