P3- sustainable energy

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  • anything that supplies electricity delivers energy
    • P3- sustainable energy
      • electrical power
        • power (w) = voltage (v) x
        • efficiency (%) = useful energy/total energy supplied
      • sankey diagrams- show all energy transferred, useful and wasted
      • saving energy
        • reducing transfer- use less, cavity wall insulation, double glazing and water tank jackets
        • cost effective- payback time = initial cost/ annual saving
        • govt incentive
      • electricity
        • transported to homes through national grid
        • non renewable- don't quickly regenerate after use, eg nuclear fuel and fossil fuels
          • damage environment, will run out but still provides most of energy
        • renewable- regenerate quickly and don't harm environment, can be unreliable
          • solar, HEP, biofuels
      • fossil fuels
        • mining destroys environment, CO2 released, oil spills, sulfur dioxide produced (coil)
        • cheap, effective and currently in use
      • nuclear
        • fission- splits atom of element, giving off heat, used in thermal generator
        • adv- cheap, efficient, no CO2
        • dis- radioactive waste, non-renewable, powerstation and disposal is costly
        • irradiation- exposed without going into body, contamination- source into body
      • renewable power
        • wind power- own generator, on exposed land
          • pros- no CO2,, cheap running, no permanent land damage
          • cons- start up costs are high, not reliable, noisy and eye saw
        • solar cells- directly generate current from sunlight
          • pros- free energy, low running costs, no pollution, v-reliable in sunny places
          • cons- expensive initial, not cost effective to connect to national grid
        • wave power- air pushed in by wave, turns turbine
          • pros- no pollution, free energy, renewable
          • cons- un-reliable, disrupts wildlife
        • tidal barrages- dams on estuaries, tide turns turbines
          • pros- reliable,non polluting, low running costs
          • cons- expensive start up, wildlife disruption, prevents river access
        • biofuels- fuel gained from biological materials
          • pros- carbon neutral
        • geothermal- heat from mantle used in thermal power stations
          • Pros- cheap, reliable, sustainable
          • only suitable in some places eg. iceland
        • hydro electricity- dams to create HEP
          • pros- reliable, no fuel costs, low running costs
          • cons- flood= land loss, less water downstream
      • comparing power- we need to look for sustainability and  efficiency
        • set up, running costs and decommissio-n
      • generators- turning a magnet in a coil of wire, thus inducing a current
        • larger current- more coils and faster movement
        • step up- more turns in secondary coil vice versa for step down.
      • national grid- transports electricity around the country to homes and buildings
        • high voltage and low current to reduce energy loss
    • energy- joules are a unit of energy
    • energy transferred (j) = power (w) x time (s)
      • or (kwh)= (kw) x (hr)


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