P12 Wave Properties

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  • Created by: Lucy Hart
  • Created on: 04-02-20 09:53
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  • P12 Wave Properties
    • P12.1 Nature of Waves
      • mechanical waves travel through a medium e.g. sound + water waves
      • electromagnetic waves travel though a vacuum e.g. light + radio waves
      • waves can be used to transfer energy + information
      • longitudinal - move up + down
        • oscillations (compression + rarefraction) are parallel to the direction the waves transfer energy
      • transverse - up + down and side to side
        • oscillations are perpendicular to the direction the waves transfer energy
    • P12.2 Properties of Waves
      • AMPLITUDE - maximum displacement of a point on a wave from its undisturbed position
        • bigger the amplitude, the more energy the waves carry
      • FREQUENCY - number of waves passing a fixed point per second
        • period = 1/frequency
      • wave speed = freq x wavelength
    • P12.5 Sound Waves
      • entering a solid converted into vibrations
        • only works over a limited frequency range
          • human ear - 20 - 20,000 Hz
      • echo sounding uses pulses
        • reflection of sound waves from a smooth surface
        • used to detect water depth in deep water
    • P12.6 Uses of Ultrasound
      • transducer detects pulses of ultrasound waves
        • 1. pulse is reflected from different tissue boundaries
        • 2. returns to trnasducer as ultrasound waves, arriving at different times, building up image
      • advantages
        • non ionsing
        • scan organs + soft tissues
      • distance travelled by wave = speed of ultrasound wave x time
      • depth of boundary below surface = 0.5 x speed x time
    • P12.7 Seismic Waves
      • earthquakes caused by sliding + colliding plates
      • primary (P) waves - initial tremor, longitudinal (push + pull on material)
        • travel through mantle, outer core + crust, refracted at boundary between mantle + outer core
      • secondary (S) waves - more tremors a few mins later, transverse
        • can't travel through outer core because transverse + can't travel through liquid
          • must be liquid outer core because S waves aren't seen in some areas
            • shadow zone shows that there is a liquid outer core
    • P12.3 Reflection + Refraction
      • plane waves in a ripple tank reflect at same angle + straight barrier because speed + wavelength don't change
      • refraction - change of direction when they cross a boundary between mediums
        • speed + wavelengths change at the boundary
      • at a boundary between two different materials waves can be transmitted or absorbed
    • P12.4 More about waves
      • sound waves travel through a medium
      • investigate waves
        • ripple tank for water waves
        • stretched spring for waves in a solid
        • signal generator + loudspeaker for sound waves

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