P1.2 Changes of State

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  • P1.2 Changes of State
    • Density
      • Tells you how much mass there is in a certain volume
      • Substances are denser in the solid state than gas state as there are more particles
      • Law of conservation of mass: particles do not appear or disappear
    • Energy and Temperature
      • Energy is measured in Joules
        • Depends on arrangement and movement of the particles
      • Temperature is measured in Degrees Celsius or Kelvin
        • Average kinetic energy of the particles
      • Heating can...
        • Change energy stored within the system to increase the temperature
        • Produce a physical change
          • Particles rearrange, reversible
          • Produces no new susbtances
        • Produce a chemical change
          • Atoms break up, then join together in different ways, irreversible
          • Produces new substances
    • Specific Heat Capacity
      • Energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a material by 1K
      • Depends on:
        • The type of material
        • The mass of the material
        • The temperature rise
      • Heating increases the internal energy of the material
        • Refers to the motion, vibration and arrangement of particles
      • Tells you how resistant a material is
        • High specific heat capacity = more resistant
    • Specific Latent Heat
      • When there is a change of state, there is no temperature rise
        • The internal energy is increasing, but the temperature is not
      • Specific Latent Heat of Fusion (or metling)
        • Energy transferred when 1kg of a substance changes from the solid state to the liquid state (or vice versa)
      • Specific Latent Heat of Evaporation
        • Energy transferred when 1kg of a substance changes from liquid to gas


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