P1.1 - Reflection and Refraction

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  • P1.1 - Reflection and Refraction
    • Light travels as waves, normally in straight lines unless it is reflected or refracted
    • Reflection
      • Reflection is a chnge in direction of a wave upon striking the interface between two materials
      • Diagram
      • Incident ray - ray or light that strikes a surface
        • Refraction
          • Light slows down when entering a denser object
            • E.g: air and glass
            • Causes the light to change direction
          • Light bends towards to normal when entering denser material
          • Angle of refraction - the angle made by a refracted ray with the normal
          • Diagram
          • There is slight reflection at points where the density changes (glass block)
          • When a ray enters a denser medium it bends toward the normal
          • When entering a less dense object, the rays bends away from the normal
      • Normal - line perpendicular to surface
        • Refraction
          • Light slows down when entering a denser object
            • E.g: air and glass
            • Causes the light to change direction
          • Light bends towards to normal when entering denser material
          • Angle of refraction - the angle made by a refracted ray with the normal
          • Diagram
          • There is slight reflection at points where the density changes (glass block)
          • When a ray enters a denser medium it bends toward the normal
          • When entering a less dense object, the rays bends away from the normal
      • Angle of Reflection - the angle made by a reflected ray with the normal
      • Angle of reflection = angle of incidence
    • Finding the focal langth
      • Diagram
      • How to find the focal point of a lens
        • Use lens to focus parallel rays of light from distant object onto a screen/piece of paper
        • Rays of light will meet at paper to form a real, inverted image.
        • Move lens until image is focused
        • The focal length is the distance between lens and paper
        • The focal point is the point where all the parallel rays are brought together
    • Lenses
      • Converging lenses makes rays of light come together
        • A converging lens can be used as a magnifying glass if it is held close to an object
          • This produces a virtual image because the rays of light only appear to be coming from it
            • It is also magnified and the right way up
      • The fatter the lense the shorter the focal point
      • The magnification of an image depends on:
        • Focal length
        • Distance between object and lens

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