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  • P1.1 - Energy Transfer
    • Conduction
      • Transfer of heat without the substance itself moving
      • Metals are good conductors because
        • As the metal becomes hotter, the atoms vibrate vigorously so this energy is transferred to the cooler parts of the metal by the free electrons
      • Insulators are materials that have few or no free electrons
    • Convection
      • Transfer of energy by heating through the movement of particles
      • Convection occurs in liquids and gases, creating convection currents
        • 1) Particles in the liquid or gas nearest the energy source move faster, causing the substance to expand and become less dense
        • 2) Warm liquid or fas rises vertically. As it does, it cools, becomes denser and sinks
        • 3) The colder, denser liquid or gas moves into the space created and the cycle repeats
    • Evaporation
      • Transfer of energy at the surface of a liquid
        • When water evaporates = water vapour
      • 1) Atoms that are moving most rapidly are located at the surface of the liquid, they behave like a gas and escape
      • 2) Overall energy will reduce. This results in a fall of temperature.
    • Condensation
      • When a gas or vapour returns to a liquid state

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