P1 mindmap

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  • Created by: Isobel8
  • Created on: 29-05-16 20:44
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  • P1
    • Heating Homes
      • Melting and Boiling
      • SLH
        • Energy=Mass x SLH
      • SHC
        • Energy= Mass x SHC x temp change
      • Measuring heat energy
        • Total energy supplied = energy supplied per second x number of seconds
      • Temperature change
      • Temperature
    • Keeping Homes Warm
      • Conduction
      • Convection
      • Transfer of heat energy
      • Energy efficiency
        • Efficiency= Useful output energy/ Total Input energy x 100
      • Cavity Wall Insulation
        • Saving Energy in the home
      • Conductors and Insulators
      • Reducing heat loss in the home
        • Pay back time= Cost of insulation/Annual saving
    • A Spectrum of Waves
      • Light
        • Light is a transverse wave
      • Electromagnetic spectrum
      • Wave equation
        • wave speed+ frequency x wavelength
      • Refraction
      • Reflection
      • Diffraction
    • Light and Lasers
      • Reflection and Refraction
        • Light and infrared rays can be reflected or refracted when they cross a glass-air boundary.
        • Optical fibres are used to send information in the form of pulses of light or infrared radiation
      • Communication Signals
      • Lasers
        • Lasers produce a beam of light in which all light waves: have the same frequency, ae in phase with each other and have low divergence.
        • A laser produces a narrow beam of monochromatic (single colour) light
      • Wireless Signals
        • Advantages
          • Signals are available 24hours a day
          • No wiring is needed
          • Items can be portable and convenient
    • Cooking and Communicating using Waves
      • Microwaves
        • Microwaves are used to transmit information over large distances that are in line of sight.
      • Microwave signals
        • Affected by: poor weather, large obstacles, curvature of earth and interference between signals
      • Transferring energy
        • Microwaves and infrared energy are transferred to materials in different ways.
          • Microwaves are absorbed by water and fat
          • Infrared is absorbed by all the particles on the surface of the food
      • Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation
        • Microwaves
          • absorbed by water and fat molecules
          • Penetrate 1cm into food
          • Cause burns if absorbed by body tissue
          • Travel through glass and plastic
        • Infrared
          • Uses to heat surface of food
          • Reflected off shiny surfaces
          • Absorbed by black objects
      • Electromagnetic Radiation
        • The amount of radiation that is absorbed or emitted fro a surface depends on:
          • Surface Temperature
          • Colour (Dark is good + Pale is bad)
          • Texture (dull is good + shiny is bad)
    • Data Transmission
      • Infrared Signals
        • Infrared radiation is a type of electromagnetic wave.
        • Uses
          • Remote Control
          • Sensor doors
          • Burglar alarms
          • Security Lights
      • Analogue and Digital signals
        • Analogue signals can be used to transmit data. They vary continuously in amplitude.
        • Digital signals can also be used to transmit data as a series of pulses.
          • Two or more digital signals can be sent down the same optical fibre at the same time.
    • WirelessSignals
      • Radiation for communication
        • Radiation used for communication can be reflected by the atmosphere.
          • Advantage
            • No connection to phone land-line required
          • Disadvantage
            • Aerial needed to pick up signal
      • Transmitting Signals
        • Satellites can be used for global communication
          • The refraction and diffraction of radiation, e.g. microwaves, can affect communications
      • DAB radio
        • New DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) Radios receive digital signals
          • Advantage
            • More stations are avaliable
          • Disadvantage
            • Audio quality is not as good as FM broadcasts
    • Stable Earth
      • Earthquakes
        • Produce shock waves, which can travel inside the earth.
          • Seismic Wave
            • P-waves
              • Travel through, crust, mantel, outer and inner core.
            • S-waves
              • Pass through crust and mantel.
            • Detecting the waves
              • P-waves
                • Travel through, crust, mantel, outer and inner core.
              • S-waves
                • Pass through crust and mantel.
      • Global Warming
        • Increased energy in homes and industry
        • Increased CO2
        • Deforestation
      • Dangerous Sun
        • Produces Electromagnetic Waves.
          • Ultraviolet
            • Sun tan, sun burn, cataracts, premature ageing and skin cancer.
        • Time in sun = 20mins with no sun cream.
      • Ozone Layer
        • Ozone is a gas found high up in the earths atmosphere, prevents too many harmful UVs from reaching Earth.

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