OTHER RISK FACTORS OF CHD

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  • Created by: Gabriella
  • Created on: 26-11-13 17:01
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  • Other Risk Factors of CHD (MULTI- FACTORIAL)
    • Smoking
      • Haemoglobin carries CO
        • Less O2 to respiring cells including cardiac muscle fibres
      • Nicotine stimulates adrenaline release
        • Increased hr
          • Vasoconstriction of the arteries
            • Increased bp
      • Chemicals damage endothelium
        • Atherosclerosis triggered
      • Reduces HDL level
    • Inactivity (Sedentary lifestyle)
      • Obesity/ unhealthy weight
        • Exercise LOWERS bp
        • Exercise  raises HDL level
        • Exercise reduces risk of developing type II diabetes
        • Exercise maintains a healthy weight
    • Lack of antioxidants (vitamins)
      • DURING METABOLISM (UNSTABLE) FREE RADICALS ARE PRODUCED (WITH AN UNPAIRED ELECTRON)
        • HIGHLY REACTIVE, DAMAGE CELL COMPONENTS
          • Without these, the free radical cannot be stabilise as not provided with an unpaired electron
      • Higher incident of CHD, cancers etc
        • vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin E add H2
          • Without these, the free radical cannot be stabilise as not provided with an unpaired electron
    • Too Much Salt  (>6g - mainly found in processed food)
      • EXCESS mean that the kidney's retain H2O
        • Raised bp
    • Excessive alcohol (yet moderate drinking has potential protective effects)
      • Raised bp
      • Damaged heart muscle (tissue damage)
      • Irregular heartbeat
      • Raised LDL level
      • Obesity
    • Genetics
      • Familial hypercholest- rolaemia
        • Mutation in LDLR gene
          • LDL receptors don't form/ misshapen = less efficient
            • Increased LDL level
      • Apolipoprotein gene clustor
        • Apolipoproteins = protein component of lipoproteins
          • Formed in liver/intestine
            • APOA - HDL. Mutation = low HDL level, more cholesterol in blood stream
            • APOB - LDL Mutation = high LDL level
          • Stabalises protein structure and recognises receptors involved in lipoprotein uptake on plasma
            • APOA - HDL. Mutation = low HDL level, more cholesterol in blood stream
            • APOB - LDL Mutation = high LDL level
      • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
        • Muscular walls of heart thicken
          • Prevents heart from filling properly
            • DEATH
              • Stops blood from being pumped
          • Stops blood from being pumped
    • Stress
      • Adrenaline production increased
        • Vasoconstriction of arteries
          • Increased bp
      • Overeating
      • Alcohol consumption
      • Smoking

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