other endocrine glands

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  • 'Other' Endocrine Organs/tissue
    • Pancreas
      • Insulin
        • 51 amino acid
        • Two amino acid chains - disulphide bonds
        • Made from proinsulin
        • Lower blood glucose levels
        • Enhances membrane transport of glucose
        • Inhibits glycogen --> glucose (glycogenolysis)
        • Inhibits amino acid/fat --> glucose
        • Triggers glycogen production
        • Elevated blood glucose levels trigger release
        • Imbalance
          • Diabetes mellitus - hyposecretion of insulin
            • Type 1 - absent insulin - immunodeficiency
            • Type 2 - present insulin - body cells irresponsible
          • Hypoinsulinism
            • Hypoglcemia - low blood glucose
      • Glucagon
        • 29 amino acid polypeptide
        • Hyperglycemic agent
        • Target = liver
        • Glycogen --> glucose breakdown (glycogenolysis)
        • Lactic acid --> glucose (gluconeogenesis)
        • Lowers blood levels of amino acids  (liver uses them)
    • Gonads
      • Steroid sex hormones
      • Steroid hormones identical to those produced by adrenal corticoid cells
      • Ovaries
        • Estrogen
          • Maturation of reproductive organs
          • Appearance of secondary sex characteristics
        • Progesterone
          • Breast development and cyclic changes
            • Estrogen
              • Maturation of reproductive organs
              • Appearance of secondary sex characteristics
      • Testes
        • Sperm
        • Testosterone
          • Initiates maturation of male reproductive tract
          • Secondary sex characteristics
          • Sex drive
          • Sperm production
    • Placenta
      • Temporary
      • Sustains fetus
      • Estrogen
      • Progesterone
      • Human chorionic gonadotropin
    • Adipose
      • Leptin
        • How much energy stored as fat
      • Resistin
        • Insulin antagonist
      • Adiponectin
        • Enhances sensitivity to insulin
    • Enterendocrine cells (GI)
      • Peptide hormones
        • Digestive function
      • Amines (seratonin)
        • Paracrines
    • Heart
      • Atria
        • Atrial naturietic peptide
          • Decreases sodium = decrease blood volume
    • Kidney
      • Interstitial cells
        • Erythropoietin
          • Increase red blood cell production
      • Renin
        • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone release of aldosterone
    • Skeleton
      • Osteoblast
        • Osteocalcin
          • Pancreatic beta cells divide/secrete insulin
          • Restrict adipocyte storage
          • Adiponectin release
    • Skin
      • Cholecalciferol
        • D3 - needed for Ca2+ absorption
    • Thymus
      • Thymulin
      • Thymopoietins
      • Thymosins
      • Hormones needed for development of T lymphocytes

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