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  • Organizations (School, Home, Environment)
    • Organizations used in school
      • Paper based system
        • Disadvantage is: registers are often left unattended so they can be altered, mistakes mean they can be hard to understand, statistics can only be produced for each term, teachers were responsible for the accuracy of the registers
      • ICT Based Registration Methods
        • OMR (Optical Mark Registration)
          • Advantages: cheap method of registration, can be used for other purposes
          • Disadvantage is: registers need to be physically passed to admin staff, can be easily damaged when folded so then they can't be readed
        • Smart Cards
          • Advantage: could be used in the canteen also, saves the teacher time
          • Disadvantage is: open to abuse, can be lost or forgotten, expensive to set up
        • Swipe Cards
          • Advantage: cheaper to set up than the smart cards, saves teacher time
          • Disadvantage is: open to abuse (someone swipe in for you), easily forgotten or lost
        • Biometric Methods
          • Advantage: there is nothing to forget, no one else can register for you
          • Disadvantage is: expensive to set up, privacy issues, reliance on an IT system
    • MIS (Management Information Systems) in Schools
      • Examples: how many yr 7's will be in which form, decide whether a new should be employed
      • Advantage: can reduce the admin staffs work, can provide up to date information, can plan timetables
      • Disadvantage is: the software is expensive to buy, student data is personal so no unauthorized access is allowed, staff will need training
    • Data Logging
      • Advantages: readings are always taken at the right time, people aren't needed to take readings, no human error, readings can be taken faster, can be placed at remote areas, readings can be taken 24/7
      • Disadvantage is: equipment malfunctions can cause wrong readings, equipment is expensive, training is needed to set it up
    • Sensors
      • Are used to detect and measure physical quantities
      • Sensors: heat, light, sound, pressure, passive infrared (PIR's)
    • Control Systems
      • Components: sensors, computer/ processor, output device
      • Example: automatic door, security light system, burglar alarm system
      • Advantage: can operate 24/7, cheaper (no need to pay wages), can work in dangerous places, can be easily reprogramed, more accurate than humans, can react quickly to changes in conditions
      • Disadvantage is: the initial equipment cost is high, equipment can go wrong, less people are needed, is there is a power cut they won't work
    • Weather Forecasting Systems
      • Can be shown using: icons, graphically, text, numbers
      • The sensors that can be used: heat, rain, wind, light, humidty
      • Advantages: data can be controlled automatically can be collected at exactly the right time, can be in remote places, data can be transmitted using radio signals
      • Disadvantage is: equipment is expensive, malfunction of equipment may lead to wrong forecasts, training is needed to use the equipment
  • Components: sensors, computer/ processor, output device


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