organisms in the environment

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  • Created by: jwizz
  • Created on: 03-06-16 14:12
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  • Organisms in the environment
    • Photo-synthesis
      • carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
      • glucose used in respiration or converted to insoluble starch and stored
      • testing for starch
        • waterproof cuticle keeps iodine out. green chlorophyll masks colour changes
          • so boil it in ethanol to remove cuticle and colour
        • add iodine
          • turns black if starch detected
      • leaf adaptations
        • large SA for light
        • chlorophyll to absorb light
        • air spaces for gas exchange by diffusion
        • veins to transport
    • limiting factors
      • light
        • stops photo-synthesis
      • temperature
        • because photo-synthesis is controlled by enzymes which denature
      • Carbon Dioxide
        • not much in the atmosphere
        • higher at night coz photo can't use it up as it's dark
    • how plants use glucose
      • during photo-synthesis
      • use it  to make amino acids
        • sugars + nitrate ions + mineral ions
        • made into proteins for use in cells
      • broken down with oxyden to provide energy
      • changed to starch for storage
        • startch is insoluble in water
          • plants can store starch in cells, it doesn't affect the water balance
            • glucose is soluble in water
              • if it was stored in cells, it would affect the way water moved in and out. it could affect the water balance of the whole plant
          • how plants use glucose
            • during photo-synthesis
            • use it  to make amino acids
              • sugars + nitrate ions + mineral ions
              • made into proteins for use in cells
            • broken down with oxyden to provide energy
            • changed to starch for storage
              • startch is insoluble in water
                • plants can store starch in cells, it doesn't affect the water balance
                  • glucose is soluble in water
                    • if it was stored in cells, it would affect the way water moved in and out. it could affect the water balance of the whole plant
              • provides an energy store for when it is dark
                • tubers/bulbs
            • make complex carbohydrates like cellulose (for cell walls)
            • combined with energy from respiration to build up fats and oils
        • provides an energy store for when it is dark
          • tubers/bulbs
      • make complex carbohydrates like cellulose (for cell walls)
      • combined with energy from respiration to build up fats and oils
    • making the most of photo-synthesis
      • more photo-synthesis = more biomass = bigger crops = more profit
      • remove the limiting factors
      • polytunnels
      • hydroponics
        • mix of mineral ions
        • expensive but gives high profits from crops
        • in areas with poor soil
      • Carbon dioxide gernerators
      • heaters
      • lights at night
    • organisms in their environment
      • temperature
        • affects photo-synthesis, so herivores can't survive long
      • nutrients
        • nitrate ions (venus don't need them)
      • light
        • affects plants
        • affects breeding cycles
      • water
        • eg desert plants and animals are few
      • Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen
        • high oxygen neede for most fish and plants
        • mosquitos - high co2 blood
    • measuring the distribution of organisms
      • Quadrats
        • quantatitive sampling
        • random
        • find mean and use to calculate it overall
      • transect
        • method
          • Quadrats
            • quantatitive sampling
            • random
            • find mean and use to calculate it overall
        • not random, regular intervals along a line
          • also measure PH, light etc. at the same time
    • how valid is data?
      • reproducible
      • valid data
      • size of sample
      • method
        • control as many variables as possible

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