Organsing the Organism

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  • Organising the Organism
    • Transport Tissues
      • Xylem and Phloem come from Meristem cells (cambium) that undergo differentiation
      • Phloem - sieve tubes and companion cells
        • meristem tissue produces cells that elongate and line up to form a long tube
      • Xylem - xylem vessels with parenchyma cells and fibres
        • meristem cells produce cells that elongate, their walls become reinforced with lignin
    • Tissues in Animals
      • Muscle - specialised to contract and move parts of the body
      • Nervous - can convert stimuli into electrical impulses and conduct those impulses
      • Connective - hold structures together and provide support
        • cartilage, bone, blood
      • Epithelial - layers and linings
        • Squamous - flattened cells, very thin forming a long thin smooth flat surface
          • held together by basement membrane (secreted by epithlial cells) made of collagen and glycoproteins, attaches epithelial cells to connective tissues
        • Ciliated - column shaped cells
          • some cells secrete mucus and others are covered in tiny hair like projections (cilia) that waft the mucus
    • Locomotion
      • muscular and skeletal systems work together for movement to take place, if the nervous system tells the muscles to co ordinate their actions
        • requires energy and therefore a supply of nutrients and oxygen from the circulatory system and digestive/ ventilation systems


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