Organising the Organism

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  • Organising the Organism
    • Transport Tissues
      • Xylem
        • Xylem Vessels with Parenchyma Cells and Fibres.
        • Meristem Cells produce cells that elongate. Their Walls become reinforced and waterproofed by Lignin. This kills the cell contents.
        • The end of the cells break down so they can become continuous, long tubes.
        • Suited for transporting water and Minerals UP the Plant, Also supports the plant
      • Phloem
        • Consists of Sieve Tube Elements and Companion Cells
        • The Meristem Tissue produces Cells that Elongate and line up end to end to form a long tube.
          • Their Ends do not break down completely, they form sieve plates between teh cells. The sieve plates allow the movement of Maerials UP/DOWN the tubes
        • Next to eaach Sieve Tube is a companion cell. They are very metabolically Active.
          • Their activities play an important role in moving the products of Photosynthesis UP/DOWN the plant.
    • Epithelial Tissues
      • Animal Tissues have 4 main catagories....
        • Epithelial Tissue - Layers and Lining
        • Connective Tissues - Hold structures together and provide support
        • Muscle Tissue - Cells specialised to contract and move parts of the Body
        • Nervous Tissue - Cells that can convert stimuli to electrical impulses and conduct those impulses
      • Squamous Epithelial Tissue
        • Flattened thin cells, makes them ideal for lining the insides of tubes ie/ blood vessels.
        • Short Diffusion Distance
        • Held in place by the basement membrane (secreated by the epithelial cells) It is made up of collagin and Glycoproteins. Attaches the cells to the tissue.
      • Ciliated Epithelial Tissue
        • Made up of Column-Shaped cells.
          • Often forund in the inner surface of the tubes ie/ the Trachea
        • The part of the cell surface that is 'exposed' in the Lumen is covered with cilia. The cilia wave in a synchronised rythem and move the Mucus
    • Cooperation
      • Addaptions of the Leaf.
        • Transparent upper surface layer, the upper epidermis, lets light through.
        • A Palisade layer underneath consists of long, thin, tightly packed cells containing a lot of chloroplasts.
        • Loosly packed Spongy mesophyll layer has many air spaces to allow circulation of gases
        • A Leaf vein system containing Xylem and Phloem tissues supports the leaf
        • A lower Epidermis layer has pores called stomata these allow gases to be exchanged.
  • Flattened thin cells, makes them ideal for lining the insides of tubes ie/ blood vessels.


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