Organisation for the State of War

  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 29-05-18 10:03
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  • Organisation for the State of War
    • Revolutionary 1792-1798
      • Levee en Masse 1793
        • 1794 army of 800,000 men
      • Political indoctrination
        • CPS duties put on duty to indoctrinate soldiers
      • state control over prices
        • After 1794, and the end of the Terror, supply and arms devpt. Reverted to private suppliers – more inefficient, corrupt.  
      • terror used to control state
        • Reign of terror - people against the state guillotined 1793-94
      • Meritocracy
        • rise of officers with talent eg Napoleon  -Toulon 1793
      • Expectations of workshops and craftsmen
        • cobbelrs to make 10 pairs of shoes a week
      • New currency introduced
        • inflation
      • around 20,000 a year fled to avoid conscription
      • Propaganda
        • songs , speeches
      • -          Scientists conscripted to work on problems of metallurgy, explosives, ballistics, all matters relating to armaments manufacture
      • -          Research lab set up (Meudon) – devised first military observation balloons
    • Napoleonic 1799-1815
      • Propaganda
        • use of semaphore signalling system to spread news
      • the production of artillery increased caused 20% of casualties by 1814
        • Battle of Wagram 500 guns on either side used
      • drew armies and money from conquered lands
        • Incomparison  to the Revolutionary period armies became even larger.
      • Mass mobilization was copied by Napoleons enemies
      • Greater organisation 1803 he created the nobility of the empire which was based more on  meritcoracy .
      • Chappe’s Sempahore system and created a courier express service to increase the speed of military and state messages. 
      • New roads and canals  were built to increase the speed of travel and trade 
      • Greater population density meant foraging armies could be supported in the country side. 
    • American Civil War 1861-1865
      • By the end of the war both governments had increased the power of the state
      •  As the war became less popular in the south the government was forced to introduce conscription There was some resistance at a local level 
      • South - White majority left to manage slaves
      • little amount of tax
      • North placed a trade blockade on south --> hit on south economy
      • Martial law was introduced
      • People able to pay substitutes to avoid conscription
      • Certain states offered bonus for signing up $700 in New york
      • both sides introduced conscription by the end
    • WW1
      • DORA
        • Defence of the Realm act 1914
          • Buildings were requisitioned
      • Development of railways made military movements easier.  
      • The French took over taxi to get troops to the river Marne 1914 
      • Less attempts to avoid conscription
      • telegraph and telephone helped to control population
      • greater police control - RU secret police waged war against revolutionaries
      • UK higher taxation
        • Nationalisation of railways
        • Conscription 1916
        • Rationing 1918
        • Bussiness men invited into government after 1916
        • Higher mistreatment of civilians
        • Britain 1918 Rationing
          • fines for breaking rationing
        • More women in heavy industry
      • Growth of modern communications  encouraged a greater sense of nationalism. 
      • Objectors sent to work on farms or prison
      • 4 billion pounds spend on the war everyday
      • New ministries formed to resolve issues
        • Shell crisis 1915 --> New ministry of Munitions
    • WW2
      • Russian dictatorship  à economic control  + ownership of industries 
      • Hitler hoped to use Blitzkrieg as a means of avoiding drawn-out controls and the sacrifices previously made in 1914-18 
      • Britain unlike germany adopted total war early on. Through rationing conscription, heavy taxation, control of transport, extra police powers. 
      • Germany used slave labour
      • Increased propaganda production of war films
      • evacuation of children from cities UK
      • Military- industrial complex
      • women in industry UK not as much in Germany due to ideology
      • Wartime welfare state introduced
      • Industries Nationalised
      • Land girls
        • farm labour workforce increased by a fith
      • Conscription from the beginning conscription act 1939 and 41
      • Farmers increased the number of acres under cultivation from 12,000,000 to 18,000,000 (from about 50,000 to 75,000 km2
      • timber corps set up to collect wood
      • Religious institutions used to support those who had been displaced
    • Crimean War
      • Volunteers requested for the war
      • Lord Raglan established a training camp at Chobham in Surrey
      • Chobham 1853  used to practice tactics and cooking
      • the times newspaper used to publish accounts
      • 1st war with more political interference from the government and public
    • Wars of Unification

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